Tuesday, April 30, 2013

Bhagavad Gita Chapter 10 - Vibhuti Yoga - Sloka 17 & 18

The entire content of this mail is from Swami Chidbhavananda's translation of Bhagavad Gita , published by Ramakrishna Mission

1 Gita Sloka  every day - Chapter 10 - Vibhuti Yoga - Sloka 17

Katham viddhyam aham yogin tvam sada parichintayan I
Keshu keshu cha bhaveshu chintyah assi bhagavn maya II sloka 17
कथम्  विद्ध्यं अहं योगिन् त्वं सदा परिचिन्तयन् I
केषु केषु च भावेषु चिन्त्यः अस्सी भगवन् मया II श्लोक 17

How may I know you, O yogin, by constant meditating. In what various aspects  are you, O Lord, to be thought of by me?

How shall my extrovert mind cognise your presence in things objective? The sight of the toys of the child stirs up thought of that child in the mother: May I, in that manner, have the means to revel in you through the things of the world?
As the fruits and toy elephant remind one of the true fruits and elephant, the symbols and images remind the devotee of the eternal God.

1 Gita Sloka  every day - Chapter 10 - Vibhuti Yoga - Sloka 18

Vistarena atmanah yogam vibhutim cha janardana I
Bhuyah kathaya truptih hi shrunuvatah na asti me amrutam II sloka 18
विस्तरेण आत्मनः योगम् विभूतिम् च जनार्दन I
भूयः कथय तृप्तिः हि शृणुवतः न अस्ति मे अमृतं II श्लोक 18

Tell me again in detail, O Janardana, of your yoga powers and attributes; for I am not satiated with hearing your life infusing words.

He is Janardana who is adored by the people both for earthly enjoyments and for emancipation. Yoga here indicates the power to know and handle things properly. They are the attributes of God which spontaneously remind man of him. Absorption in the attributes of god is as good as the absorption in him. While matters earthy are satiating, matters godly are never so.  The jivatman grows increasingly in divinity as he dwells on the divine attributes of the paramatman.
The relationship between  Iswara and jivatman is like that between magnet and iron.
Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa

Monday, April 29, 2013

Bhagavad Gita Chapter 10 - Vibhuti Yoga - Sloka 15 & 16

The entire content of this mail is from Swami Chidbhavananda's translation of Bhagavad Gita , published by Ramakrishna Mission

Bliss Evident in God's Glories 12-18

1 Gita Sloka  every day - Chapter 10 - Vibhuti Yoga - Sloka 15

Svayam eva atmana atmanam vettha tvam purushottama I
Bhuta bhavana bhuta esha deva deva jagatpate II sloka 15
स्वयं एव आत्मना आत्मानम् वेत्थ त्वं पुरुषोत्तम I
भूत भावन भूत ईश देव देव जगत्पते II श्लोक 15 

Verily you alone may know yourself by yourself, O Purushottama, O Source of Beings, O Lord of Beings, O God of Gods, O Ruler of the World. 

The individual souls are clalaed Purushas out of courtesy because they temporarily occupy the puri of the prakriti  and then they vacate it when they get mukti. But the Lord being the eternal Presiding deity over the prakriti, he aptly eulogised as the purushottama. Being the origin of all beings, he is Bhuta bhavanah. Ruler of all beings that he is, the appellation Bhutesa and Jagatpati are appropriate to him. His glory in its entirety is known to him alone and to none else.
An indivivdual took a diamond to the market place for valuation and asked several shopkeepers about it. The brinjal seller opined that 5 baskets of brinjals might be bartered for that gem. The rice merchant viewed that 2 bags of rice could very easily be given in exchange for it. The draper in his turn held that a bale of linen might be unhesitatingly offered for that precious thing.  Finally it was given to the diamond merchant who alone could value it at 2 lakh rupees! In this fashion the Lord is also beheld in varying ways according to people's power of understanding. God's glories are verily unfathomable.

1 Gita Sloka  every day - Chapter 10 - Vibhuti Yoga - Sloka 16

Vaktum Arhati asheshene divyah hi atman vibhutyah I
Yabhih vibhitbhih lokan iman tvam vyapya tishthasi II sloka 16
वक्तुं  अर्हति अशेषेण दिव्यः हि आत्मन्  विभूतयः I
याभिः विभूतिभिः लोकान इमान् त्वं व्याप्य तिष्ठासि II श्लोक 16

Condescend to tell without reserve of your divine glories, by which glories you remain pervading all these worlds.

A musician alone can bring out the fine touches in melody. The strength of an elephant could be demonstrated only by that stately animal turning out gigantic work. The wealth of a monarch can be well recounted by none but himself. It is only given to an incarnation  of God to reveal all of his divine splendours and glories
The revelation of God  comes purely by his mercy. He is the sun of knowledge. It is possible for a single ray of his enlighten the whole world.  We are therefore able to understand one another and to acquire  knowledge in all its forms. More than all these, we get to know him by his grace only.

Saturday, April 27, 2013

Bhagavad Gita Chapter 10 - Vibhuti Yoga - Sloka 14

The entire content of this mail is from Swami Chidbhavananda's translation of Bhagavad Gita , published by Ramakrishna Mission

Bliss Evident in God's Glories 12-18
1 Gita Sloka  every day - Chapter 10 - Vibhuti Yoga - Sloka 14

Sarvam etat trutam manye yanmam vadasi keshava I
Na hi te bhagavan vyaktim viduh devah na danavah II sloka 14
सर्वं एतत् त्रुतं मन्ये यन्मां वदसि केशव I
न हि ते भगवन् व्यक्तिं विदुः देवः न दानवः II श्लोक 14

I hold as true, all that you say to me, O Kesava. Neither the devas nor the danavas, O lord, know verily your manifestation.

Bhagavan is he who fully manifests six divine qualities which are: bala, omnipotence; dharma, righteousness; aiswarya, lordship; sri wealth and beauty; jnana wisdom; vairagya dispassion. Further he knows the past, present and future of beings. His manifestation in the human form remains unknown to the devas themselves; how then shall the danavas or asuras come to know of his interests and extents?

The sun is immensely greater than the earth: but because of the distance it appears as a small disk. In this wise Iswara's attributes are infinite; but we know very little of him because of our ignorance

Friday, April 26, 2013

Bhagavad Gita Chapter 10 - Vibhuti Yoga - Sloka 12 & 13

The entire content of this mail is from Swami Chidbhavananda's translation of Bhagavad Gita , published by Ramakrishna Mission

Bliss Evident in God's Glories 12-18
1 Gita Sloka  every day - Chapter 10 - Vibhuti Yoga - Sloka 12 & 13

Sage Vyasa's meditations
Arjuna Uvacha
Param brahma param dham pavitram paramam bhavan I 
Purusham shashvatam divyam adidevam ajam vibhum II sloka 12
अर्जुन उवाच
परम् ब्रह्म परम् धाम पवित्रं परमम् भवान् I
पुरुषं शाश्वतम् दिव्यं आदिदेवं अजं विभुम् II श्लोक 12
Arjuna said
You are the Supreme Brahman, the Supreme Abode, the Supreme Purifier, the Eternal, Divine Purusha, the Primeval Deity, the Unborn, the Omnipresent.

Ahuh tvam rsayah sarve devarishih naradah tatha I
Asitah devalah vyasah svayam cha eva bravipi me II sloka 13
आहुः त्वं ऋषयः सर्वे देवर्षिः नारदः तथा I
असितः देवलः व्यासः स्वयं च एव ब्रवीपि मे II श्लोक 13 

All the rishis have thus acclaimed you, as also the deva rishi Narada; so also Asita, Devala and Vyasa; and now you yourself say it to me.

The rishi is one who has transcended the senses and intellect and contacted the reality through intuition.

Thursday, April 25, 2013

Bhagavad Gita Chapter 10 - Vibhuti Yoga - Sloka 11

The entire content of this mail is from Swami Chidbhavananda's translation of Bhagavad Gita , published by Ramakrishna Mission

The Buddhi Yoga 10-11
1 Gita Sloka  every day - Chapter 10 - Vibhuti Yoga - Sloka 11

Tesham eva anukampa artham aham agyana jam tamah I
Nashayami atma bhavastah gyana deepena bhasvata II sloka 11
तेषां एव अनुकम्पा अर्थम् अहं अज्ञान जम् तमः I
नाशयामि आत्म भावस्थः ज्ञान दीपेन भास्वता  II श्लोक 11

Out of pure compassion for them. dwelling in their hearts, I destroy the ignorance-born darkness, by the luminous lamp of wisdom.

The Lord's choosing to dwell in the hearts of  beings is his compassion. Because of his presence as conscience, beings are prompted to seek what is good or atleast what seems good. The lamp of wisdom that the lord lights is constituted of divine components. Discrimination functions as the container of oil. The contentment coming from bhakthi is the oil. The flame gets put out by foul air. But this flame is fed by the pure air of meditation on Iswara. Prajna or the awareness of the self ensuing from the constant brahmacharya serves as the wick. The heart freed from all worries and anxieties is the lamp. A burning lamp runs teh risk of getting blown out by a gust of wind. but a mind unaffected by attachment and aversion is the best windscreen for this lamp. The unbroken consciousness of Iswara is the flame emanating from this lamp of wisdom, set up in the heart of the devotee. He beholds the divine presence within himself with the aid of this divine lamp. 

A policeman patrolling at night carries a bull's-eye lantern with the aid of which he sees persons loitering about. But this lantern doesnot disclose its carrier. If he, however, turns it on himself, the others then come to know who he is. Likewise Iswara reveals nature and its contents, but keeps himself hidden. Nobody can see him except through his grace and compassion
Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa

Wednesday, April 24, 2013

Bhagavad Gita Chapter 10 - Vibhuti Yoga - Sloka 10

The entire content of this mail is from Swami Chidbhavananda's translation of Bhagavad Gita , published by Ramakrishna Mission

The Buddhi Yoga 10-11
1 Gita Sloka  every day - Chapter 10 - Vibhuti Yoga - Sloka 10
Bhgavatam saves lives

Tesham satata yuktanam bhajatam priti purvakam I
Dadami buddhi yogam tam yena mam upayanti te II sloka 10
तेषां सतत युक्तानां भजतां प्रीति पूर्वकं I 
ददामि बुद्धि युक्तानां तं येन मां उपयान्ति ते II  श्लोक 10

To them ever devout, worshipping me with love, I give the yoga of discrimination by which they come to me.

On trial sugar is found to taste sweet. Thought is then bestowed to make varieties of sweetmeats with it. This is the buddhi yoga pertaining to sugar. The glory of god begins to dawn in the mind of the sadhaka who devoutly and persistently practises yoga. This initial experience gives impetus for further pursuit of yoga, leading to greater cognition of god's glory. This is the buddhi yoga endowed with which the sadhaka gets to know more and yet more of the sweet sublimity of the lord and be ardently drawn to him. Devotion does this way wax with buddhi yoga.

A man confined within a dark room contacts a ray of light coming in through a small aperture. He gathers knowledge of the light to that extent. But as the aperture increases in size, his conception of light widens. A man in the broad day light has his own view of the light. Similar to this, God reveals himself in varying degrees and aspects according to the nature and attainments of his devotees
Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa

Tuesday, April 23, 2013

Bhagavad Gita Chapter 10 - Vibhuti Yoga - Sloka 9

The entire content of this mail is from Swami Chidbhavananda's translation of Bhagavad Gita , published by Ramakrishna Mission

The Knowledge of Vibhutis Fosters Devotion 7-9

1 Gita Sloka  every day - Chapter 10 - Vibhuti Yoga - Sloka 9
Sudama being served by Krishna & Rukmini
Madchittah madgata pranah bodhayantah parasparam I
Kathayantah cha mam nityam tushyanti cha ramanti cha II sloka 9
मद्चित्तः मद्गत प्राणाः बोधयन्तः परस्परम् I 
कथयन्तः च मां नित्यं तुष्यन्ति च रमन्ति च II श्लोक 9 

With their minds fixed on Me , with their life absorbed in Me, enlightening each other and ever speaking of Me, they are contented and delighted.

The easiest of all acts for one is to fix one's mind on what one likes the most. The child that understands that its all in all are mother and father, gets spontaneously absorbed in the parents. The devotee who comes to know that the Lord is the source and stay of himself, naturally directs his mind to the Maker. An adult sacrifices his everything in the service of his parents. nothing is dearer to one than life. The bhaktha devotes that life to the Lord. But it is not like the lovers doting one each other; for there is a lustful selfishness in their act. The devotee on the other hand, invites others to share the devotion with them. Temperamental differences are set aside in this holy act. The mention of the Lord, made by others is delightful. He devotedly recounts his understanding of the Lord to the others and eagerly receives their experiences and dissertations on the Lord. Repeated recounts of his glories does not render them stale or repugnant. Rather they become increasingly absorbing. Divergent dispositions do in this manner get co-mingled in God.

Holy communion creates contentment and not the frustration which follows indulgence. 
No picture can be painted on fresh glass. But if it is coated with the required chemicals, painting on it then becomes possible and effective. Similarlly if a man's heart were coated with devotion,  the imprinting of of the august presence of Iswara on it becomes easy.

Saturday, April 13, 2013

Bhagavad Gita Chapter 10 - Vibhuti Yoga - Sloka 8

The entire content of this mail is from Swami Chidbhavananda's translation of Bhagavad Gita , published by Ramakrishna Mission

The Knowledge of Vibhutis Fosters Devotion 7-9

1 Gita Sloka  every day - Chapter 10 - Vibhuti Yoga - Sloka 8
Yogi filled with Krsna
Aham sarvasya prabhavah mattah sarvam pravartate I
Iti matva bhajante mam budhah bhava samanvitah II sloka 8
अहं सर्वस्य प्रभवः मत्तः सर्वं प्रवर्तते I
इति मत्वा भजन्ते मां बुधाः भाव समन्वितः II श्लोक 8

I am the origin of all; from me all things evolve. The wise know this and adore me with all their heart.

The  farmer who wants to bring up robust plants gives all his attention to the soil, it being the basis of good cultivation. The wise in this wise give their mind to god knowing that he is the source of everything and that the thought of him alone enriches and ennobles the mind. Their attention does not on any account deviate from god. As the plant gets itself rooted in the earth, the yogi gets himself  attached to the Almighty. And that is the unfaltering yoga.

Is there then no provision for varying temperaments to be drawn to godhead? The answer is given in the next sloka. 

Friday, April 12, 2013

Bhagavad Gita Chapter 10 - Vibhuti Yoga - Sloka 7

The entire content of this mail is from Swami Chidbhavananda's translation of Bhagavad Gita , published by Ramakrishna Mission

The Knowledge of Vibhutis Fosters Devotion 7-9

1 Gita Sloka  every day - Chapter 10 - Vibhuti Yoga - Sloka 7
Krsna in All 
Etam vibhutim yogam cha mama yah vetti tattavatah I
Sah avikampena  yogena yujyate na atra sanshayah II sloka 7
एतां विभूतिं योगं च मम यः वेत्ति तत्त्वतः I
सः अविकंपेन योगेन युज्यते न अत्र संशयः II श्लोक 7 

He who knows in truth this glory and power of mine is endowed with unfaltering yoga; of this there is no doubt.

Electricity manifests itself in various forms in instruments suited to those forms. In whatever form this energy expresses itself, the power is the same. This is a specimen of the primordial power of the Lord evolving itself into the glorious varieties of the sentient and insentient beings abounding in nature. The discerning man knows that whatever he senses, is the power and glory of the Iswara. He cannot therefore be any more separate from Iswara than he can be separate from the earth. His yoga with god is there by made unfaltering.
 A lamp cannot burn without oil. Even so, man cannot be bereft of God.

Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa
What is meant by unfaltering yoga? The answer comes in the next sloka.

Wednesday, April 10, 2013

Bhagavad Gita Chapter 10 - Vibhuti Yoga - Sloka 6

The entire content of this mail is from Swami Chidbhavananda's translation of Bhagavad Gita , published by Ramakrishna Mission

Iswara the source of everything -1-6
1 Gita Sloka  every day - Chapter 10 - Vibhuti Yoga - Sloka 6

Maha rushayah sapta purve chatvarah manavah tatha I
Madbhavah manasa jata yesham loka imah prajah II sloka 6
महा ऋषयः सप्त पूर्वे चत्वारः मनवः तथा I 
मद्भावा मानसा जाता येषां लोक इमाः प्रजाः II श्लोक 6

The seven great rishis and the four ancient Manus, endowed with my power, were born of my mind; and from them have come forth all the creatures of the world.

The seven great rishis are Bhrigu, Marichi, Atri, Pulah, Pulastya, Kratu, and Angiras. The four ancient Manus are Svarochisha, Swayambhu, Raivata and Uttama. These potentates are not of human origin. They are all born of the mind of Brahma, the Creator. In other words, they are all personifications of the several phases of the cosmic reality. The seven great rishis represent the seven planes of consciousness. They are therefore said to be the originators of beings at all levels of existence and all grades of evolution. Naught exists beyond the pale of their domains. While the seven rishis represent the created beings in their entirety, the four ancient manus function as the orderly admisitrators of the entire creation.  The precision and regularity evinced by nature are all due to the efficient regime of the manus.

What is the benefit that the sadhaka derives by knowing this structure of the cosmos and of its orderly functioning? The answer comes in the next sloka

Saturday, April 6, 2013

Bhagavad Gita Chapter 10 - Vibhuti Yoga - Sloka 4 & 5

The entire content of this mail is from Swami Chidbhavananda's translation of Bhagavad Gita , published by Ramakrishna Mission

Iswara the source of everything -1-6
1 Gita Sloka  every day - Chapter 10 - Vibhuti Yoga - Sloka 4 & 5

Buddhih jnanam asammohah kshama satyam damah shamah I
Sukham duhkham bhavah abhavah bhayam cha abhayam eva cha II sloka 4
बुद्धिः ज्ञानं सम्मोहं क्षमा सत्यं दमः शमः I
सुखं दुःखं भवः अभावः भयं च अभयं एव च II श्लोक 4

Ahimsa samata tushthih tapah danam yashah ayashah I
Bhavanti bhavah bhutanam mattah eva pruthakvidhah II sloka 5
अहिंसा समता तुष्ठिः तपः दानं यशः अयशः I
भवन्ति भावाः भूतानां मत्तः एव  प्रुथक्विधाः II श्लोक 5

Intellect, wisdom, non-delusion, patience, truth, slf restraint, calmness, pleasure, pain, birth, death, fear and fearlessness.  Sloka 4 

Non-injury, equanimity, contentment, austerity, charity, fame and obloquy - these different qualities of beings arise from me alone. Sloka 5
Buddhih or intellect is the faculty of grasping matters subtle and abstruse.  jnanam or wisdom is the discernment of the atman.
Asammohah  or non-delusion is the clarity of the mind  even in critical and trying situations. 
Kshama  or patience is the kindly attitude of the mind towards opponents and enemies.
Satyam or truth is the accurate presentation of what one has seen, known and experienced.
Damah  or self restraint is the control of the external senses of touch, taste, sight, smell and hearing.
shamah or calmness is the practice of the quietude of the mind and intellect.
Sukham  Happiness
duhkham pain 
bhavah  birth 
abhavah non-existence 
bhayam fear 
abhayam fearlessness

                                                                  - Sloka 4

Ahimsa Non injiury
Samata or equanimity is the balanced state of the mind in the midst of happenings of the desirable and undesirable occurences
Tushthih  or contentment
Tapah   or austerity is the determined change of life habits from bad to good through  self-discipline
Danam  or charity is the gift of the good and useful things made to deserving persons
Yashah and Ayashah  or fame and obloquy are the outcome of doing right or wrong deeds. - sloka 5

Electric power utilised by man expresses itself through different instruments. According to their attainments acquired through their karma in this life and in the past lives, men become the instrument for the expression of the Brahman positively or negatively. The qualities mentioned herein are all from the same source - Iswara.

Who are they that have become the vehicles for the abundant expression of the glories of Iswara? The adumbration ensues in the next sloka

Friday, April 5, 2013

Bhagavad Gita Chapter 10 - Vibhuti Yoga - Sloka 3

The entire content of this mail is from Swami Chidbhavananda's translation of Bhagavad Gita , published by Ramakrishna Mission

How then does the Brahman serve us, the ordinary aspirants?

Iswara the source of everything -1-6
1 Gita Sloka  every day - Chapter 10 - Vibhuti Yoga - Sloka 3
Krishna directing creation
Yo mam ajam anadim cha vetti loka saha eswaram I
asamoodhah sah martyeshu sarva papaih pramuchyate II sloka 3
यो मां अजम् अनादिं  च वेत्ति लोक सहा इश्वरम् I 
असम्मूढः सः मर्त्येषु सर्व पापैः प्रमुच्यते II श्लोक 3

He who knows me as unborn and beginningless, as the great lord of the worlds, he among mortals is undeluded and freed from all sins.

In His absolute state, Brahman is unknown and unknowable. Triputi or triad of the seer, the seen and the process of seeing is not in him. But in his transcendent state, a glimpse of his reality is intuited by the perfect ones like the rishis. They realise the existence of the Imperishable as the basis of the perishing prakriti. This contact is likelooking at the infinte sky through a peep hole. But this realization is very important for the sadhaka. He intuits that the Lord is unborn and beginningless and that he is the supreme sovereign of the worlds. After knowing this truth he is no more deluded about the functioning of the phenomenon. Sin consists of construing man's life as independent of Iswara's ordainment. But the sadhaka who links his life entirely with the plan and purpose of the Lord, gets himself freed from all sins.

To see into the way of the transcendent reality is given to the enlightened only. But the brahman filters himself down furtherinto Immanence. In this aspect of his, he is available to the ordinary sadhaka too. This is decribed further

Thursday, April 4, 2013

Bhagavad Gita Chapter 10 - Vibhuti Yoga - Sloka 2

The entire content of this mail is from Swami Chidbhavananda's translation of Bhagavad Gita , published by Ramakrishna Mission

Iswara the source of everything -1-6
1 Gita Sloka  every day - Chapter 10 - Vibhuti Yoga - Sloka 2

Na me viduh suraganah prabhavam na maharshayah I
Aham adir hi devanam maharishinam cha sarvasah II sloka 2
न मे विदुः सुरगणाः प्रभवं न महर्षयः I 
अहं आदिः हि देवानां महारिषिणाम् च सर्वशः II श्लोक 2

Neither the hosts of devas nor the great rishis know my origin; for in every respect I am the source of teh devas and the great rishis.

The birth of the son and his progress in life is known to the father, but the birth and boyhood of the father remains ever beyond the ken of the son. Analogously Brahman is the source and witness of the universe that comes from him and merges into him. The eternal brahman is to some extent cognised by the perfect beings like the great rishis. But his glory in its entirety can never be known by the hosts of saints and sages. He only remains partially revealed even when he embodies as an incarnation like Rama or Krishna.
The divine breeze blowing  from the ocean of sat chit ananda Brahman  transports people into ecstasy. Sanaka Sanantana and other ancient rishis got themselves perfected by this divine breeze. A mere glimpse of this ocean sent Narada into raptures. Suka the Brahma jnani  touched this water but once and got himself filled with Brahmavastha  and wandered the world as a divine lad. Siva the cosmic teacher took only 3 sips of the great ocean and became dazed with transcendental bliss. Indeed who can measure the depth or the characteristics of the Infinite Ocean of the Brahman
Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa 

Wednesday, April 3, 2013

Bhagavad Gita Chapter 10 - Vibhuti Yoga - Sloka 1

The entire content of this mail is from Swami Chidbhavananda's translation of Bhagavad Gita , published by Ramakrishna Mission

Iswara the source of everything -1-6
1 Gita Sloka  every day - Chapter 10 - Vibhuti Yoga - Sloka 1
Vishnu appearing before Aditi
Shri Bhagavan Uvacha
Bhuya eva mahat baho shrunu me paramam vachah I
Yatteham priyamanaya vakshyami hita kamyaya II sloka 1
श्री भगवान उवाच 

भूय एव महत् बाहो शृणु मे परमम् वचः I 
यत् ते अहं प्रीयमाणाया वक्ष्यामि हित काम्यया II श्लोक 1

The blessed Lord said
Once again, O mighty armed, listen to my supreme word. Out of a desire to do you good I wish to speak of it to your absorbing delight.

The Lord is pleased with Arjuna's keen interest in hearing of his divine glories. The master's zeal to teach waxes in unison with the receptive faculty of the taught. This psychological fact is made evident here. The vedantic verdict - "Wonderful is the teacher, and equally clever the pupil" is more than proved by Sri Krishna and Arjuna. What the Lord imparts is the life saving ambrosis to Arjuna.

The topic dealt with in chapters 7 & 9 is resumed and supplemented somewhat elaborately in this chapter. Repeated and comprehensive enquiry into the glory of the Lord clarifies the understanding and promotes devotion. For knowing and loving are inter related. What else can man do than bend his head in reverence before the grandeur and sublimicity of the Lord?

But what grandeur can there be in a personality bound in this mortal coil? The Lord himself answers in the next slokas

Tuesday, April 2, 2013

Bhagavad Gita Chapter 9 - Rajavidya Rajaguhya Yoga - Essence of Chapter 9

GeethaarTa Sangraham which has been Annotated as a Commentary in English By Oppiliappan kOil SrI Varadachari Sathakopan (www.sadagopan.org). This ebook is available at http://www.sundarasimham.org/ebooks/GitaSHM.pdf.  I have also attached the book for ease of download.
Translation of Alavandar's Gitarthasangraham, by Diwan Bahadur VK Ramanujachari, published by Andavan Ashram has also been provided below.


The 9th Chapter of SrImath Bhagavath GeethA: has 34 slOkams.

Desikan - Srirangapatana
தமேன்மை  யுந்தன் பிரப்பிர்ரலராத் தனிநிலையும் 
பன்ன்மேனி நணினன் பால் பிரியா அன்பர் ஆசைகளும் 
புன்ன்மேனி விண்ணவர் பால் புரியாத  தன் பத்திமையும் 
நன்ன்மேனி ணாரணன்னரனுக்கு நவின்றனனே

tamEnmai yunthan piRappiR RaLarAt-taninilayum

pannmEni naNInan paal piriyA anbar aasaikaLum

punnmEni ViNNavar paal puriyAtha Tann Bhatthimayum
nannmEni NaaraNannaranukku navinRananE

Lord Krishna of divinely beautiful body instructed Arjuna about His Supreme status (with no one to equal Him or excel Him), His undiminished Superiority as the Lord even in His avathArams (Parathvam) and His indwellership inside the bodies of all chEthanams (DevAs,humans, birds, animals et al), the loving services rendered by His BhAgavathAs and the Bhakthi yOgam to be practiced towards Him.

BhagavAn is the antharyAmi (indweller) for both the chEthanam and achEthanam. He creates every one and every thing. He protects them and ultimately dissolves them. The world functions because of Him. BhagavAn instructed Arjuna on these glories. Wherever BhagavAn incarnates and whatever forms He takes during His incarnation, His Jn~Anam and Sakthi are undiminished. There is no diminution of His Parathvam (Supremacy). The Lord explains the BhaagavathAs practicing Bhakthi yOgam towards Him with nAma sankeerthanam, archanai, and aarAdhanam with intense (Bhakthi) bhAvam. He instructs Arjuna that His true BhAgavathAs would not desire insignificant and non-lasting phalans and that they would not devote their time to DEvAs, who have perishable bodies. BhagavAn explained that His BhAgavathAs perform AarAdhanam for Him and perform Saathvika ThyAgam at the end and meditate on Him with intense love. BhagavAn identified this devout love with Bhakthi.


Alavandar - Kattamannar koil
Sva mahatmyam manushyeshu paratvam cha mahatmanam I
Visheshah navamah yogah bhakthi roopah prakrirtitah II sloka 13

स्व महात्म्यं मनुष्येषु परत्वं च महात्मानं I
विशेषः नवमः योगः भक्ति रूपः प्रकृतितः I I  13th SlOkam of GeethArTa Sangraham

Lord Krishna described in the ninth chapter, “His own eminence, His undiminished Supremacy as the divine even when He assumes embodiments as incarnations, the excellence of MahAthmAs or devotees, who seek Him alone and the discipline of Bhakthi or devotion to Him”.

In the previous chapter, the differences that characterize the four different seekers, who approach the Lord were covered. In this chapter, the nature of UpAsanaa taking the form of Bhakthi is explained. The glory of those BhagavathAs practicing Bhakthi yOgam is also extolled by the Lord to establish the lofty state of the Jn~Ani practicing Bhakthi yOgam.


Maya tatam idam sarvam jagad avyakta murtina I
matasthani sarva bhrutani na chaham teshva vastthitah II sloka 9-4
मया ततं इदं सर्वं जगद अव्यक्त मूर्तिना I
मतस्थानि सर्व भृतानि न चाहं तेष्व वस्त्थितः I I  श्लोक 9-4


“The whole universe is pervaded by Me in an unmanifest form. I am the Seshi (Master), who sustains and rules over this universe. I am their in dweller, who controls their actions. They depend on My will for their existence and acts. I do not however depend on them for My existence.”

Avajananti mam moodhah manushim tanum ashritam I
Param bhavam ajanantah mama bhuta maheshwaram II sloka 9-11
अवजानन्ति मां  मूदाः मानुषीं तनुं आश्रितं I
परम् भावं अजानन्तः मम भूत महेश्वरम् II श्लोक 9-11


“Driven by their bad karmAs, fools ignore Me when I take on human forms and fail to recognize that I am the Supreme Lord of all beings and the Omniscient as well as Omnipotent Lord, who has incarnated as a mere human being.”

Mahatmanah tu mam partha daivim prakritim ashritah I
Bhajanti ananya manasah jnyatva bhutadim avyayam II sloka 9-13
महात्मानः तु मां पार्थ दैवीं प्रकृतिं आश्रितः I
भजन्ति अनन्य मनसः ज्ञात्वा भूतादिं अव्ययं I I  श्लोक 9-13

“On the other hand, the great--souled ones (MahAthmAs) who are affiliated with My divine nature, worship Me with steady minds and recognize Me as the immutable origin (source) of all beings.”

Satatam keertayantah mam yatantah cha drdavarata I
Namasyantah cha mam bhaktya nitya yuktah upasate II sloka 14
सततं कीर्तयन्तः मां  यतन्तः च द्र्दवर्तते I

नमस्यन्तः च मां भक्तया नित्य युक्तः उपासते I I  श्लोक 14

“Aspiring for eternal communion with Me, they worship Me, always singing My praise, striving with steadfast resolution and bowing down to Me in devotion”.

Through SlOkams 16-19, the Lord reveals to ArjunA that He is the Vedic sacrifices (Krathu & Yaj~nam), He is the offering to the manes (SvadhA), He is the oblation proper, He is the Mantram with which such oblation is offered, He is the clarified butter poured as oblation in the sacred fire, which is none other than Himself. Our Lord continues to reveal about His pervasive presence in every thing and being: “I am the Father, Mother, creator and grandfather of the universe. I am the purifier. I am the syllable Om (Pavithram OmkAra:) and also Rk, Saaman and Yajus. I am the goal (gathi), supporter, the Lord, the witness, the abode, the refuge and the friend. I am the seat of origin and dissolution, the base of preservation and the imperishable seed (Bheejamavyayam)--I am immortality (amrutham) as  well as death (Mruthyu)”.

Ye api anya devatah bhakthah yajante shraddhaya anuvitah I
Te api mam eva kaunteya yajanti avidhi purvakam II sloka 23
ये अपि अन्य देवताः भक्ताः यजन्ते श्रद्धया अनुवितः I
ते अपि मां  एव कौन्तेय यजन्ति अविधि पूर्वकम् I I  श्लोक 23

“Even those who are devoted to other divinities with faith in their hearts, worship Me alone, Oh ArjunA, though not as sanctioned by the SaasthrAs”. 

Aham hi sarva yajnanam bhokta cha prabhuh eva cha I
Na tu mam abhijananti Tat tvavena atah chyavanti te II sloka 24
अहं हि सर्व यज्ञानां भोक्ता च प्रभुः एव च I
न तुम मां अभिजानन्ति तत् त्ववेन अतः च्यवन्ति च I  श्लोक 24


“For, I am the only enjoyer and the only Lord of all sacrifices. They do not recognize Me in My true nature; hence they fail”.

Patram pushpam phalam toyam yo me bhaktya prayachati I
Tat aham bhakti upahrutam ashnami prayamta atmanah II sloka 26
पत्रं पुष्पं फलं तोयं यो मे भक्त्या प्रयच्छति I
तत् अहं भक्ति उपहृतं अश्नामि प्रयंत आत्मनः I I  श्लोक 26

“Whoever offers Me with true devotion a leaf, a flower, a fruit or some water, I accept this offering made with devotion by him, who is pure of heart”.

Pita aham asya jagatah mata dhata pitamah I
Vedyam pavitram aumkarah rk sama yajuh eva cha II sloka 17
पिता अहं अस्य जगतः माता धाता पितामहः  I
वेद्यं पवित्रं औम्कारः ऋक साम यजुः एव च II श्लोक 17

“Whatsoever you do, whatsoever you eat, whatsoever you offer, whatsoever you give away, whatsoever austerity you practice, Oh ArjunA, do that as an offering to Me”.

Tapami aham aham varsham nigrahami udsrujami cha I 
Amrutam cha va mrutyuh cha sat asat cha aham arjuna II sloka 19
तपामि अहं अहं वर्षम् निग्रह्नामि उत्स्रजामि च I
अमृतं च एव मृत्युः च सत् असत् च अहम् अर्जुन II श्लोक 19

“I am the same to all creation. There is none hateful or dear to Me. But those, who worship Me with devotion abide in Me and I do abide in them”.

Man manah bhava mad bhaktah mad yaji mam namaskuru I
Mam eva eshyasi yuktva evam atmanam mad prayanah II sloka 34
मद्  मनाः भव मद्  भक्तः मद्  याजी मां नमस्कुरु I

मां एव एष्यसि युक्त्वा एवं आत्मानं मद्  परायणः II  श्लोक 34

“Focus your mind on Me, be My devotee, be My worshipper. Bow down to Me. Engaging your mind in this manner and regarding Me as the Supreme Goal, You will come to Me. In this last slOkam of the Ninth chapter of SrImath Bhagavath GeethA, Our Lord describes the true nature of Bhakthi. 

Meaning from Alavandar's Gitarthasangraham, translated by Diwan Bahadur VK Ramanujachari, published by Andavan Ashram

Sva mahatmyam manushyeshu paratvam cha mahatmanam I
Visheshah navamah yogah bhakthi roopah prakrirtitah II sloka 13

स्व महात्म्यं मनुष्येषु परत्वं च महात्मानं I
विशेषः नवमः योगः भक्ति रूपः प्रकृतितः I I  13th SlOkam of GeethArTa Sangraham

In the ninth chapter the following matters are described:
The highest atma's own greatness; appearance of his divine power even when he comes down among men; the superiority of the jnanis; and yoga in the form of bhakthi yoga.

Explanation : The last is the principal topic of the chapter; and the others are subsidiary to it. Yoga is enjoined in the last verse but one thus :

You, who are in this world, which is perishable, and in which there is no happiness, meditate on me. 

By the term 'this' it is indicated that the enjoyment in this world is very petty. The original has the term asukha,  which means something other than sukha  - that is, that there is suffering. Suffering is of 3 kinds - that caused by one's own body (adhyatmikam)  that caused by the elements (sun, wind, rain and the like) (adhibautikam) and that caused by the devas (adidaivikam). These are usually spoken of as tapa trayam (3 sufferings). The intention is to show that such enjoyment, as is found in samsara, being mixed with suffering, is not happiness in reality. Thus 3 faults are pointed out - that the enjoyment is very petty, that it is perishable, and that it is not happiness in reality. By doing so, the disinclination to do meditation is removed. One, that realises what is stated, will be disgusted with this world, and will long to get out of it. Such a person is qualified for meditation. 

2. The nature of meditation is described in the last verse:

Be with your mind  fixed on me only: do this with love; serve me; prostrate yourself before me.  Maintaining your mind in this manner and regarding me as the highest goal, you will come to me only. 

The first clause means that the meditator should think only of the highest atma and that no other thought should intervene. The thought should be repeated without a break, and should be continuous like a stream of oil poured from a cup. The second clause states that this meditation should be a loving meditation, the highest atma being loved beyond measure. The next two clauses describe the degree of love that is needed. The intention is not that the meditator should serve;it is that the love should be so intense, that the meditator will be so pleased by the highest atma, that he will be led to serve Him in every way. The fourth clause states the meditator will not be content with this, but that the love will make him submit himself completely to the object of the meditation. The meditation should become as vivid as sense perception is, though this is not stated here. Thus yoga or bhakthi yoga is continuous, vivid, loving meditation  on the highest atma.

3. The mediation should be done the manner prescribed in stanzas 1 & 2 of the explanation under verse 10 with this difference. The obejct of the meditation is the highest atma in the place of the atma of the meditator. In doing dharana, the mind should dwell on the figure of the highest atma.  At first it should dwell on one part of it; then upon another and so on. When this practice succeeds, the mind should be fixed on the whole figure. The next step is to repeat the thought, to make it flow in a continuous stream, and to prevent the intervention of a dissimilar thought. This is known as dhyana. When this is established, the last step is to drop the figure of the highest atma and to meditate on his swarupa only. This is known as samadhi and is the means to release or moksha.

What worldly action you do for the maintenance of your body, what you eat for its support, what offering to devata or gift you make or what tapas (dimunition of sense enjoyment) you do, do it, so that it may be yielded to me.

That means that when these actions are done, the doer should think that the actions belong to the highest atma; that they are done by him, he himself being merely an instrument; and that he alone is worshipped by them; for the devatas, whose worship they appear to be, are only his bodies.

5. To turn to the subsidiary matters dealt with in this chapter: the first is the greatness of the highest atma. In verse 7 of the chapter VII it was stated that he enters into every object and supports it. This point is reinstated in verses 4-6, and additional information is given. From the analogy of the string of pearls it may be inferred that he enters all the objects, but is himself unseen. This is expressly stated here

All this world is pervaded by Me in a form, which no one can perceive.

He is present within them in his svarupa; no reference is made to any figure of his. Next, the jiva supports his body by his presence within it; and the body renders a service to him. The objects, that the highest atma supports, do not render any  service to him. Next, his support is not like the support of water by the jar, by contact with which the water is prevented from falling down. He supports by his mere will, but does not require any help in the matter. This power to support by mere will is peculiar to him and is exemplified in verse 6. A strong wind rests on akasa. ie., in vacant space, and moves about everywhere; for it is supported by the highest atma. Similarly, all objects are supported by him.

6. In verse 6 of chapter VII it was stated that the highest atma is the place from which all beings go forth, and the place in which they are dissolved. This point is explained more clearly in verses 7-10. 

All beings at the end of a world-age come to my prakriti; at the beginning of another world-age, I send them forth again.

A world-age (kalpa) here is a life period of the fore facedd being, and in the pralaya that follows it, even he disappears. "My prakriti" is the lower prakriti of verses 4 & 5 of chapter VII. As reference is made in the verse to all beings, the prakriti is what is known as tamas. It is the state of the matter preceding evolution; and in this state it is without name and form. As prakriti is the body of the highest atma, the absorption of all products in tamas is dissolution in himself as stated in chapter VII. "Send them forth" -  beings familiar to them.

Energising and controlling My prakriti, I send forth again and again all these beings, who are helpless, being under  the control of matter.

This verse refers to jivas; for it is said that they are under the control of matter and are helpless. The first effect of putting forth energy is to make prakriti assume eight forms as stated in verse 4 of chapter VII. This is known as samashti evolution. These were then mixed and compounded in various ways; and bodies were formed for the jivas, with diverse forms and names. This is known as vyashti evolution. Into these the jivas were made to enter, each according to his karma. Before this was done, the jivas were exactly alike, and were known as samashti jivas. They now became vyashti jivas, as they were in particular bodies, and differed from one another. They are broadly classified into devas. men brutes and vegetables. There are differences in the places and in the times in which they live and in their experiences of pleasure and pain. Sending them forth in this manner is indicated in the original by the prefix vi in the verb visrijami. Again and again means at the proper time. The question will arise whether the highest atma does not render himself liable to the charge of partiality and for want of mercy. Verse 9 states that this charge will not touch him; for in the matter of the difference the cause is the past karma (good and bad deeds) of the jivas themselves; and the highest atma is like that is indifferent. This reply raises another question - if the creation of differences be in accordance with karmas of jivas, matter alone, which continually changes, may evolve in accordance with the karmas. Verse 10 states that it is necessary for the highest atma to direct it; for it is unintelligent. Thus it has been pointed out that the highest atma in the form of Sri Krishna is the lord of all, that his will never fails, and that he is not open to the charge of partiality or  cruelty. The retention of this divine power undiminished is not true only when he appears in human shape; it is true of all his avataras. 

7. The only matter to be explained is the superiority of the jnanis, that is, those that wish to be ever with the highest atma, and love him alone. In the first place they are not like the others deluded by the human form in which he appears; they recognise him as the world cause, and as free from any contractions of his attribute jnana. For he comes down not from karma, but from his unbounded mercy in order to protect good men. They do this, as they do prapatti; and as by this means they are freed from all obstacles, the sattva quality predominates in their minds; and they meditate on him, regarding it as the only end worth  striving for. The love for him is so great, that without this meditation they cannot support themselves, their minds or their outer senses (verse 13). Their love also makes them ever repeat his names - Narayana, Krishna, Vasudeva  and the like, which describe his noble qualities; to do such actions as will be acceptable to him, like placing flowers at his feet, and actions which serve them like the building of temples, making flower gardens and the like; and to fall down before him without minding whether the place is dusty, miry or is full of pebbles. Other jnanis in addition to these perceive the highest atma alone in every object in the world; for being clothed in the matter and jiva elements in the subtle condition. He willed to become many, and became the universe; so that every object is he alone in that form (verses 14 & 15). Next they do not ever return to this world after enjoyment in swarga like those that perform soma yagas. They reach the highest atma, who is limitless bliss, and never return. For he takes upon himself the burden of their attaining their goal (yoga) and of preventing it from coming to an end (kshema) (verse 22). Next they find no difficulty in worshipping him. He is willing to accept anything that they may offer - be it a leaf, flower, a fruit or  a cup of water. He is the lord of the changing and changeless worlds, and can command what he wishes to get; yet he accepts these; for they are offered with love, and the worshippers regard the offering itself as and end, and their minds are therefore pure (verse 26). Thus the highest atma overlooks differences in the objects that are offered to him. Similarly, he does not mind differences among those that love him for himself. He does not reject one on the grounds that he is of low birth, or that his figure is not pleasing, or that he is low nature or that he is not learned; nor does he accept one merely on the plea that he is the reverse. He treats all alike; but when one loves him for himself, be he high or low, he will be with him, as if he were his equal; and he himself will be with him as if he were his superior (verse 29).  He extends the same treatment to one that swerves from the practices prescribed for his caste and stage of life, provided that he loves him for himself. He is stated to be a good man and deserves respectful treatment. His conviction being good, his mind will quickly turn to dharma (meditation of the highest atma) and his evil practices will soon disappear ( verses 30 & 31). Such is the superiority of the jnanis.