Tuesday, December 30, 2014

ESSENCE OF THE FIFTEENTH CHAPTER—16TH PAASURAM

GeethaarTa Sangraham which has been Annotated as a Commentary in English By Oppiliappan kOil SrI Varadachari Sathakopan (www.sadagopan.org). This ebook is available at http://www.sundarasimham.org/ebooks/GitaSHM.pdf.  I have also attached the book for ease of download.

Translation of Alavandar's Gitarthasangraham, by Diwan Bahadur VK Ramanujachari, published by Andavan Ashram has also been provided below.

THE ESSENCE OF THE FIFTEENTH CHAPTER—16TH PAASURAM

The FIFTEENTH Chapter of SrImath Bhagavath GeethA has 20 slOkams. This chapter is about “The Mystery and grandeur of the Supreme Lord (PurushOtthaman)”.

INTRODUCTION TO THE FIFTEENTH CHAPTER:
AchArya RaamAnujA's commentary as translated by Swamy AdhidEvAnandha is as follows:

The THIRTEENTH Chapter dealt with the KshEtrA (Field) and the KshEthjn~A (the field knower); it was shown after an examination of the nature of Prakruthi and self, that the beginningless conjunction of the pure self consisting only of infinite knowledge, with the prakruthi, transformed into the forms of gods, humans, animals, birds etc., causing the flow of attachment of the self to the guNAs of the Prakruthi.

In the FOURTEENTH chapter, the following points were treated:
The conjunction of the self with the prakruthi in its two states of effect and cause has attachment to the guNAs for its source and it is determined by the Lord Himself; The manner of (their) attachment has been stated in detail; The (re) attainment of the true nature of the self-preceded by the annihilation of attachment to the GuNAs has devotion to the Lord as its means. All these have been discussed.

Now in the FIFTEENTH chapter, Sri Krishna begins to speak of the adorable Lord as having the absolute control of the Universe consisting of the perishable or bound selves (Kshara) and the imperishable or freed selves (akshara). He also states that the Lord is the Supreme Person because of His unmatched greatness in being antagonistic to all that is evil and in being endowed with auspicious attributes, which are different in kind from both the perishable and imperishable selves and which constitute His glory. Then to elucidate the manifestation called Akshara (freed souls) whose bondage has been cut off by the sword of non-attachment, the Lord describes the modification of Kshara or non-intelligent Prakruthi into the form of bondage that has to be cut off. This modification of bondage-creating Prakruthi is compared to the Aswattha tree (Pipal tree) with its roots above and branches below”.

SWAMY ALAVANTHAR'S SUMMARY OF THE 15TH CHAPTER
Alavandar with his sishyas

Achin mishradvi shuddhaccha chetanat purushottamah I
Vyapanad bharanat swam yad anyah pancha dashoditah II
                                   -- 19th slOkam of GeethArTa Sangraham

अचिन् मिश्राद्वि शुद्धाच्च चेतनात् पुरुषोत्तमः I 

व्यापनाद् भरणात् स्वाम् याद् अन्यः पञ्च दशोदितः II श्लोक 19  

MEANING:
In the fifteenth chapter, the Supreme Person is declared to be other than the self both in its state of conjunction with non-conscient matter (Prakruthi, the achEthanam) and in its state of pristine purity, because the Lord as PurushOtthaman pervades, sustains and rules over them (Prakruthi, ChEthanam and achEthanam) and the universe. BhagavAn, the SarvEswaran (Lord of all) is distinctly different from both the chEtanam with
prakruthi sambhandham (Bhaddha Jeevan), and the pristinely pure ChEtanam (Muktha Jeevan) without any admixture of prakruthi and its three guNams (PurushOtthama:

achinmisrAth chEthanAth cha anya:  -  This is so because He is pervading both inside and outside (vyApanAth) is supporting all (BharaNaath) and is the Lord of all (SwAmyAth). Vedam declares, “Sa: Utthama: Purusha:” (He is the Supreme Pursushan). VishNu purANam and SrImath RaamAyaNam salute Him as PurushOtthaman. The word “PurushOtthama:” can be defined in one of the three ways: “PurushEbhya: Utthama:, PurushANAm utthama: and PurushEshu Utthama:”

Srutha PrakAsikai, the commentary of Sudarsana Soori on SrI BhAshyam and Swamy Desikan's commentary on SthOthra Rathnam of Swamy AlavanthAr, support all of these three definitions. Thus, the three chapters (13th, 14th and 15th) of the Lord's GeethA elaborated on the three tatthvams (Chith, achith and Iswaran) in that order.

SWAMY DESIKAN’S SUMMARY OF THE 15TH CHAPTER - 16TH PAASURAM

Moovettinum athin mOham adaintha uyirhaLinum
naa yettezhutthOdu nalveedu naNNina nambarinum
mEvu yettu vann guNa viNNOrhaLinum Visayanukku
thAvittu ulahaLanthAn tanai vERenRu sARRinanE!

மூவேட்டினும் அதின் மொஹம் அதைந்த உயிர்ஹலினும் 
நா எட்டேழுதொடு நல்வீடு நண்ணின நம்பரினும் 
மேவு யெட்டு வண்ண குண வின்னோர்ஹளும் விசயனுக்கு 

தாவிட்டு  உலஹலந்தான் தனை வேறென்று சார்ரினனே !


MEANING:
The Lord who jumped to measure the worlds as Thrivikraman (ThAvittu ulahaLanthAn) instructed ArjunA that He is different from Prakruthi with its 24 sub-tatthvams (mUvettinum vERu). He revealed to ArjunA further that He is distinctly different again form both the Bhaddha Jeevans (Jeevan admixed with the three guNams of Prakruthi), which become Muktha Jeevans through unceasing AshtAkshara manthra japam (practice of unwavering Bhakthi yOgam). Finally, the Lord explained that He is also different from the eternally liberated souls (Nithya Sooris) as well, who are characterized by the 8 aathma guNams (Daya to all jeevans, forbearance against offenses, lack of jealousy, Purity, lack of sorrow, thinking of doing good to others, lack of greed and VairAgyam).

SOME KEY SLOKAMS OF THE FIFTEENTH CHAPTER:

SLOKAM 2:

Adhah cha oordhvam prasrutah tasya shakhah guna pravruddhah vishaya pravalah I
Adhah cha  moolani anu samtan tani karma anubandhini manushya loke II sloka 2
अधः च ऊर्ध्वं प्रसृतः तस्य शाखः गुण प्रवृद्धः विषय प्रवालाः I 
अधः च मूलानि अणु संतान तानि कर्म  अनुबन्धानि मनुष्य लोके II श्लोक 2

MEANING:
The branches of SamsAram (called Asvattha tree) spread out both above and below and are nurtured by the three guNAs. Their tender shoots are sense objects (SabdhAthi vishaya PallavA:) Above, this tree's branches and shoots manifest as GandharvAs, YakshAs, demigods/ dEvAs etc and are nourished by the Satthva guNam; down below the branches of this AswatthA tree spread as bhaddha Jeevans (products of their karmAs) in the form of men, beast, bird, insect et al. This AswatthA tree can be uprooted with the sharp axe of detachment form the sense objects constituted by the three guNAs. Then the erroneous knowledge (vipareetha Jn~Anam) that the Jeevan is the same as SarIram is destroyed and the agency (karthruthvam) of the three guNams that held the pristine Jeevan in bondage is understood, which in turn leads the way to moksham.

SLOKAM 7:

Mama eva amshah jiva loke jiva bhutah sanatanah I
Manah shashtani indriyani prakriti sthani karshati II sloka 7
मम एव अंशः जीव लोके जीव भूतः सनातनः I 
मनः शश्तानि इन्द्रियाणि प्रकृति स्थानि कर्षति II श्लोक 7

MEANING:
An everlasting part of myself (SanAthanO Mama Amsa :) having become the bound self in the world of life attracts the senses, of which the mind is the sixth, and which abide in Prakruthi. The ear (sabdham: hearing sense), the eye, the sense of touch (sparsam), the nose (gandham), and the mind constitute the 6 senses. The KarmAs attract the selves (Jeevans) here and there and transform them into bound jeevans. The individual Jeevan is the Master of all senses and the mind (the 6th sense) in its embodied state and leads to the existence as Bhaddha Jeevan. It becomes Karma vasyan and toils in SamsAram. Whatever body the bhaddha jeevan takes as a result of its karmAs, it takes with it the senses with their subtle elements, just as the wind carries/wafts the fragrances (that it had encountered), wherever it moves.

SLOKAM 15
Sarvasya chaham hrudi samnivishtah mattah smritih gyanam apa uhanam cha I
Vedaih cha sarvaih aham eva vedyah vedanta krut veda vid eva cha aham II sloka 15
सर्वस्य चाहं हृदि संनिविष्टः मत्तः स्मृतिः ज्ञानं अप ऊहनं  च I 
वेदैः च सर्वैः अहं एव वेद्यैः वेदान्त कृत वेद विद् एव च अहम् II श्लोक 15

MEANING:
And I am seated in the hearts of all. From Me arises memory, knowledge and their removal as well. Indeed I alone am to be known (as the indweller of all chEthanams and achEthanams) from all the vEdAs. I bring about the fruition of the rituals of the VedAs (GeethA slOkams 7.21-22 and 9.24). I alone am the knower of the VedAs (I know the Veda that speaks about Me).

SLOKAM 16
Dvau imau purushau loke ksharah cha aksharah eva cha I
Ksharah sarvani bhutani kutasthah aksharah uchyate II sloka 16
द्वौ इमौ पुरुषौ लोके क्षरः च अक्षरः एव च I 
क्षरः सर्वाणि भूतानि कूटस्थः अक्षरः उच्यते II श्लोक 16

MEANING:
There are two kinds of persons (PurushAs) that SaasthrAs refer to:
(1) The Perishable (Kshara) and (2) The imperishable (akshara purushan,the unchanging kUtasthan). From the lowly blade of grass to the mighty Brahma dEvan are Kasharaas. They are conjoined with achEthana prakruthi and its three guNams in different proportions. The akshara purushans are the liberated Jeevans and are free from prakruthi-sambhandham.

SLOKAM 17
Uttamah purushah tu anyah paramatma iti udahrtah I
Yah loka trayam avishaya bibhartih avyayah iswarah II sloka 17
उत्तमः पुरुषः तु अन्यः परमात्मा इति उदाहृतः I 
यः लोक त्रैयम् आविश्य बिभर्तिः अव्ययः इश्वरः II  श्लोक 17

MEANING:
There is the Supreme Purushan other than these two Purushans (Ksharan and aksharan). That Supreme One is named the Supreme Self (ParamAthmA) in all the VedAs. He who, as the immutable One and the Lord, entering the threefold world, supports it”. The Supreme Purushan (Iswaran) is “a category distinct from the bound (kshara) and liberated (akshara) Purushans”. He is their ruler and indweller and is celebrated by the smrithis and the VedAs as the PurushOtthamn (athOsmi lOkE vEdE cha praTitha: PurushOtthama:).

SLOKAM 19
Yah mam evam asam mudhah gyanati purushottama I
Sah sarva vid bhajati mam sarva bhavena bharata II sloka 19
यः मां एवं असं मूढाः ज्ञानाति पुरुषोत्तम I 
सः सर्व विद्भजति  मां सर्व भावेन भारत II श्लोक 19

MEANING:
He who, without delusion thus knows Me as the Supreme Self, knows all, Oh ArjunA, and worships Me in every way”. SrI GeethAchAryan instructed ArjunA on His PurushOtthama-- prathipAdhanam (PurushOtthama VidhyA) and described it as the mysterious and esoteric doctrine that can be revealed only to the right (Qualified) adhikAri. Knowledge of the PurushOtthama VidhyA  will make the knower a truly wise person and make him as the one, who has fulfilled all his duties (yEthath BhuddhvA BuddhimAn syAth, Kruthakruthya: cha).

Meaning from Alavandar's Gitarthasangraham, translated by Diwan Bahadur VK Ramanujachari, published by Andavan Ashram

Achin mishradvi shuddhaccha chetanat purushottamah I
Vyapanad bharanat swam yad anyah pancha dashoditah II
                                   -- 19th slOkam of GeethArTa Sangraham

अचिन् मिश्राद्वि शुद्धाच्च चेतनात् पुरुषोत्तमः I 

व्यापनाद् भरणात् स्वाम् याद् अन्यः पञ्च दशोदितः II श्लोक 19  


The fifteenth chapter states that the Purushottama is other than the intelligent person, that is connected with matter, and other than he, that has become pure; for he pervades them, supports them and is their lord.
Explanation: What is stated in this verse is the essence of the Upanishads ; and this is stated by one that alone knows the meaning of the veda correctly. See the last portion of verse 15 of this chapter that states - " I alone know the veda".

The implication is that one, that states  the meaning of the veda otherwise, does not know the veda. That the highest atma is unique being is stated in verse 6 to 18. The atma, that is bound, is denoted by the word kshara; for he is connected with matter, that is ever liable to change. By this term all atmas from the four faced Brahma to the lowest germ are intended; for this description app;lies to all of them. The freed atma is denoted by the term akshara;  for he has been released from  connection of the matter and has attained his own nature. Hence he is not connected with any particular body, and is like the common ancestor of several families. He is therefore called as the Kutastha. The highest atma is other than both the classes and is therefore said to be parama (highest) atma. For he has entered the three tattvas - matter, the bound atma, and the freed atma. He supports them as their atma. He that has entered and supports must be other than what is entered and supported. 

Similarly, He is free from imperfections, and must be other than what are not free from them. Matter changes in its substances; the bound atma is connected with it, and follows its changes; and the freed atma, though the connection has ceased, is fit for it. The highest atma also controls them and is therefore other than those that are controlled. He is therefore said to be purushottama by the veda and smritis. This knowledge of the highest atma is praised in the last two verses.

2. As subsidiary to the main topic of the chapters , verses 1 to 15,  state that the bound atma, the freed atma and the non-intelligent products of the matter are the vibhutis of the highest Atma. To enable one to grasp the nature of bondage, it is compared with the peepul tree. Its root is above, as it begins with the four faced being whose world is above the earth. Its branches are below, as it  ends with all men, brutes, worms, insects, and vegetables etcc that live on the earth. This unique tree is nourished by vedic texts pointing out the means  to various fruits, as a tree is nourished by its leaves. It has roots below in the world of men in the form of karmas; for by karmas done by atmas as men, they again become men, brutes and the like below; they become devas above. They are therefore the lower and upper branches of the tree  of bondage respectively. The means to end this bondage is non-attachment. Verse 4 points out that by doing prapatti it is possible to secure the grace of the highest atma and to destroy the attachment to the fruits of the gunas and its root, misconception. Verse 6 points out the nature of the freed atma, that he is self proved and adds that he is the vibhuti of the highest atma. The next verse states that the bound atma is also his vibhuti and explains why some are bound are some are free. Verse 12 to 14 state that the sun, moon, fire and the earth and the fire that digests the food of animals are all his vibhutis

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For an introduction given earlier to the Gitarthasangrahas by Swamy Alavandar & Swamy Desikan
For Essence of the 1st chapter go to 
For Essence of the 2nd chapter go to

For Essence of the 3rd chapter go to

For Essence of the 4th chapter go to

For Essence of the 5th chapter go to

For Essence of the 6th chapter go to

For Essence of the 7th chapter go to

For Essence of the 8th chapter go to

 For Essence of the 9th chapter go to

For Essence of the 10th chapter go to

For Essence of the 11th chapter go to

For Essence of the 12th chapter go to

Saturday, December 27, 2014

1 Gita Sloka Every Day - Chapter 15 - Purushottama Yoga - Sloka 20

The entire content of this mail is from Shri V N Gopala Desikan's  Srimad Bhagavad Gita, published by Vishishtadvaita Research Centre, Chennai and The Bhagavad Gita by Swami Chidbhavananda published by Ramakrishna Mission

What is the benefit that the sadhaka derives in being tuned in Brahmavastha? It is delineated below

The Facets of Brahman 16-20
1 Gita Sloka  Every Day - Chapter 15 - Purushottama Yoga - Sloka 20

Thiruppavai Day 12

Iha guhyatamam shastram idam uktam maya anagha I
Etat budhatva buddhiman asyat kruta krutyah cha bharata II sloka 20
इह गुह्यतमम् शस्त्रं इदम् उक्तम् मया अनघ I 
एतत् बुधत्वा बुद्धिमान् अस्यात् कृत कृत्यः च भारत II श्लोक 20 

Thus, O sinless one, has this most profound teaching been imparted by me.  Knowing this a man becomes enlightened, O Bharata, and all his duties are accomplished.
 
Arjuna, I have thus taught you the most secret sastra, describing my nature as the Prurushottama; because you are sinless. Knowing this sastra, a person becomes as good as having known all that needs to be known; and having done all that needs to be done; for attaining me. In other words, knowing this, he will, in due course, get all the further knowledge required; and will, in due course, do all the things required, to attain me. 

Iti shrimad bhagavad gitasu upanishadtsu brahmavidyayam yogashastre srikrishna arjuna samvade purushottama yogo nama panchadashodhyayah II
इति श्रीमद भगवद्गीतासु उपनिशद्त्सु ब्रह्मविद्यायां योगशास्त्रे  श्रीकृष्ण अर्जुन संवादे पुरुषोत्तम योगो नाम अष्टमोध्यायः  ।।

Saturday, December 20, 2014

Thirunakshatram of Swami Naalooranachan Pillai

Naalooranachan Pillai

ACHARYA Nalur Pillai (who is a disciple of NAlurAn a direct disciple of                                               Kurathazhwan)

SISHYAS thirunArAyaNapurathu  Ay,  iLampiLichaipiLLai  and  thiruvAimozhi                                                   piLLai.

TAMIL MONTH Margazhi

NAKSHATRAM           Kettai (Jyeshta)

PARENTS Nalur Pillai (who is a disciple of NAlurAn a direct disciple of                                               Kurathazhwan)

PLACE OF BIRTH Thirunarayanapuram (Melkote), Karnataka.

NAME AT BIRTH dhEvarAjAchAn piLLai, dhEvEsar, dhEvAdhipar and mElnAdu AchAn                           piLLai

WORKS         vyAkyAnams for thirumozhi and periyAzhwAr thirumozhi.

LINKS
http://guruparamparai.wordpress.com/2013/04/21/eeynni-madhava-perumal/

Thirunakshatram of Swami Periya Nambi on December 21, 2014

     
Swami Periya Nambi


ACHARYA Alavandar

SISHYAS Ramanuja, Malai kuniya, ninraar, Arya Sri Satakopa dasar,  Ariyarangatha                                                     amudanar,  Thiruvazhk Kulamudayan Bhattar, Thirukacchi Nambi, etc.

DATE OF BIRTH 1017 AD

LIFE SPAN         120 yrs

TAMIL MONTH Margazhi

NAKSHATRAM Kettai (Jyeshta)

YEAR OF DEATH 1137 AD

PLACE OF BIRTH Pasiyathu Koil, Chola desam

BRINDAVANAM Srirangam

NAME AT BIRTH MahA PUrNar, ParAnkusa DhAsar and pUrNAchAryar

GOTHRAM Bharadwaja

WORKS
ThiruppAvai 6000padi vyAkyAnam, Vyakhyanam for kaNNinuN chiruthAmbu, amalanAdhipirAn, aruLicheyal rahasyam (rahasya thrayam explanation using AzhwAr words), AchArya hrudhayam pattOlai (his own explanation for AchArya hrudhayam which is not found anymore), etc

LINKS
http://guruparamparai.wordpress.com/2012/09/01/periya-nambi/    http://www.srivaishnava.org/sva/pnambi.htm      http://srikosam.net/acharyas/periya-nambi/      

Thirunakshatram of Tondaradipodi azhwar on December 21, 2014

Tondaradipodi azhwar

AMSAM Vanamaalai

YEAR OF BIRTH 700 AD

TAMIL MONTH Margazhi

NAKSHATRAM Kettai (Jyeshta)

PLACE OF BIRTH Thirumandangudi

NAME AT BIRTH Vipranaaraayanar, Thirumandangudiyaar,Bhakthangirirenu, Palliunartthiya-piraan
WORKS
Tirupalliyuchchi & Tirumalai

LINKS
http://anudinam.org/2011/12/23/today-dec-23rd-margazhi-kettai-thirunakshatram-of-thondaradipodi-azhwar/      
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thondaradippodi_Alvar /    
http://www.divyadesam.com/alwars/thondaradippodi-alwar.shtml /   http://www.ramanuja.org/sv/bhakti/archives/jan2002/0112.html /   
http://www.srivaishnava.in/alwars/item/128-thondaradippodi-alwar.html /

Thirunakshatram of Swai Kooranarayana Jeeyar on December 21, 2014

Kooranarayana Jeeyar
ACHARYA Ramanuja

DATE OF BIRTH 1459 (approx)

TAMIL MONTH  Margazhi

NAKSHATRAM (STAR) Kettai (Jyeshta)

PLACE OF BIRTH Kooram

NAME AT BIRTH SrIvathsAnga Misrar

WORKS
Sri Sudarshana Sathakam,   
Commentaries on MaaNDUkya Upanishad ,TaittirIya Upanishad and IsAvAsyOpanishad  are classical commentaries"

LINKS
http://www.ibiblio.org/sadagopan/ss/ss3.htm                                 http://www.ramanuja.org/sv/bhakti/archives/may2001/0167.html                         http://www.indiadivine.org/content/topic/1539033-sudarsana-shatakam-koora-narayana-jeeyar-swami/                 https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/SriRangaSri/conversations/topics/18774                 http://sripedia.appspot.com/group/oppiliappan/archives/may2010/21427                                                           http://godharangan.blogspot.in/2010/12/day-4-did-you-know.html  

1 Gita Sloka Every Day - Chapter 15 - Purushottama Yoga - Sloka 19

The entire content of this mail is from Shri V N Gopala Desikan's  Srimad Bhagavad Gita, published by Vishishtadvaita Research Centre, Chennai and The Bhagavad Gita by Swami Chidbhavananda published by Ramakrishna Mission

The Facets of Brahman 16-20
1 Gita Sloka  Every Day - Chapter 15 - Purushottama Yoga - Sloka 19

Tiruppavai day 5
Yah mam evam asam mudhah gyanati purushottama I
Sah sarva vid bhajati mam sarva bhavena bharata II sloka 19
यः मां एवं असं मूढाः ज्ञानाति पुरुषोत्तम I 
सः सर्व विद्भजति  मां सर्व भावेन भारत II श्लोक 19

He, who undeluded, knows me as the highest self - he knows all, O Bharata, and he worships me with all his heart.


A person, who is free from delusion; who truly understands me as the highest person, in the manner described in slokas 17 and 18, he knows everything that has to be known, as the means (upaya) for attaining me.

Whatever ways of worshipping me are indicated, as the means for attaining me; he worships me, by all these ways.

Whatever love and happiness I get, by people having all types of knowledge about me; and by people worshipping me by all ways; I get the same love and happiness, by a person having this knowledge alone, about me, as the Purushottama.

Tuesday, December 16, 2014

1 Gita Sloka Every Day - Chapter 15 - Purushottama Yoga - Sloka 18

The entire content of this mail is from Shri V N Gopala Desikan's  Srimad Bhagavad Gita, published by Vishishtadvaita Research Centre, Chennai and The Bhagavad Gita by Swami Chidbhavananda published by Ramakrishna Mission

The Facets of Brahman 16-20
1 Gita Sloka  Every Day - Chapter 15 - Purushottama Yoga - Sloka 18

Tiruppavai Pasuram 1
Yasmat ksharam ati itah aham aksharat api cha uttamah I
Atah asmi loke vede cha prathitah purushottamah II sloka 18
यस्मात् क्षरम् अति इतः अहम् अक्षरात् अपि च उत्तमः I 
अतः अस्मि लोके वेदे च प्रथितः पुरुषोत्तमः II श्लोक 18

As I transcend the Perishable and am even above the Imperishable, therefore am I known in the world and in the Vedas as Purushottama the highest 'Purusha'.

Thus I am superior to both kshara and akshara  as explained in slokas 16 and 17. Therefore, I am called as the highest personor Purushottama by the vedas and smirits.

1 Gita Sloka Every Day - Chapter 15 - Purushottama Yoga - Sloka 17

The entire content of this mail is from Shri V N Gopala Desikan's  Srimad Bhagavad Gita, published by Vishishtadvaita Research Centre, Chennai and The Bhagavad Gita by Swami Chidbhavananda published by Ramakrishna Mission

The Facets of Brahman 16-20
1 Gita Sloka  Every Day - Chapter 15 - Purushottama Yoga - Sloka 17

Uttamah purushah tu anyah paramatma iti udahrtah I
Yah loka trayam avishaya bibhartih avyayah iswarah II sloka 17
उत्तमः पुरुषः तु अन्यः परमात्मा इति उदाहृतः I 
यः लोक त्रैयम् आविश्य बिभर्तिः अव्ययः इश्वरः II  श्लोक 17


But discinct is the supreme purusha called the highest self, the indestructible lord, who pervades and sustains all the three worlds.

The highest person is other than the kshara and akshara- ie. the bound souls and the free souls. He is described as Paramatma in the vedas (ie. Myself)

He enters the three worlds as their inner soul. The three worlds are 1) achetana or prakriti 2) souls which are still in samsara ie. kshara or bhaddhas 3) souls which are liberated from samsara ie. akshara or muktas.

He supports all of them. Therefore, He who pervades them and supports them, is different  from them ie. from the chetanas and achetanas. The supporter is obviously different from the supported things. 

He is also unchangeable and the Lord of  the three worlds, as above. He is different from these three worlds, for another reason also. How?
  1. The prakriti is always changing
  2. The bhaddhas or kshara are also changeable, due to association with the bodies (or prakriti)
  3. The muktas were once changeable (earlier) due to the then association with the bodies ie before liberation.
But, I the lord am always changeable. Hence the Lord (myself) is different from the three worlds. 

As the lord or ruler, I am also different  from the things ruled ie., prakriti, bhaddha and muktas.                        



Monday, November 17, 2014

1 Gita Sloka Every Day - Chapter 15 - Purushottama Yoga - Sloka 16

The entire content of this mail is from Shri V N Gopala Desikan's  Srimad Bhagavad Gita, published by Vishishtadvaita Research Centre, Chennai and The Bhagavad Gita by Swami Chidbhavananda published by Ramakrishna Mission

The Facets of Brahman 16-20
1 Gita Sloka  Every Day - Chapter 15 - Purushottama Yoga - Sloka 16



Dvau imau purushau loke ksharah cha aksharah eva cha I
Ksharah sarvani bhutani kutasthah aksharah uchyate II sloka 16
द्वौ इमौ पुरुषौ लोके क्षरः च अक्षरः एव च I 
क्षरः सर्वाणि भूतानि कूटस्थः अक्षरः उच्यते II श्लोक 16

There are two kinds of purushas mentioned in the vedas, known as kshara (destructible) and akshara  (indestructible). The perishable is all beings and the imperishable is the Kutastha or the unchanging.

The kshara denotes the class of souls,  who because of their past karma, are associated with bodies (which are the modifications of the non-intelligent prakriti), starting from Brahma, down to the grass etc. This kind of souls (kshara) are also called as baddha (ie. bound by samsara)

The second kind of souls is called as akshara or indestructible. These souls are released from bondage of samsara, due to the destruction of their past karmas. Theri association with  the bodies of devas, men etc. has come to an end. Theya re the liberated souls and are called as muktas.

Friday, November 14, 2014

1 Gita Sloka Every Day - Chapter 15 - Purushottama Yoga - Sloka 15

The entire content of this mail is from Shri V N Gopala Desikan's  Srimad Bhagavad Gita, published by Vishishtadvaita Research Centre, Chennai and The Bhagavad Gita by Swami Chidbhavananda published by Ramakrishna Mission

The Immanence of the Paramatman - 13-15
1 Gita Sloka  Every Day - Chapter 15 - Purushottama Yoga - Sloka 15


Sarvasya chaham hrudi samnivishtah mattah smritih gyanam apa uhanam cha I
Vedaih cha sarvaih aham eva vedyah vedanta krut veda vid eva cha aham II sloka 15
सर्वस्य चाहं हृदि संनिविष्टः मत्तः स्मृतिः ज्ञानं अप ऊहनं  च I 
वेदैः च सर्वैः अहं एव वेद्यैः वेदान्त कृत वेद विद् एव च अहम् II श्लोक 15

And I am seated in the hearts of All; From me are memory, knowledge as well as their loss; I am verily that which has to be known by all the vedas; I am indeed the author of the vedanta as well as the knower of the vedas.

The Lord resides as the consciousness in the hearts of all. Memory of what has been done before is possible because of this. Knowledge or the faculty of understanding as to how to react to the changing circumstances- this power also comes from it. As the unwanted old records are destroyed, the purposeless retention in memory and the aimless fostering of unwanted knowledge - these are all done away with because of the proximity of the consciousness.

The various cosmic functions and the knowledge pertaining to them His omniscience is evinced verywhere in the nature by things sentient and insentient. This omniscience is attested by the cosmos and the nature which testifies that he is Bliss. That beauty is all his, is borne testimony to by anything and everything  in the universe.To know all these verities is to know the vedas. Iswara is the knower of the vedas. The truth of his being beyond all this is vedanta. 

Thursday, November 13, 2014

1 Gita Sloka Every Day - Chapter 15 - Purushottama Yoga - Sloka 14

The entire content of this mail is from Shri V N Gopala Desikan's  Srimad Bhagavad Gita, published by Vishishtadvaita Research Centre, Chennai and The Bhagavad Gita by Swami Chidbhavananda published by Ramakrishna Mission

The Immanence of the Paramatman - 13-15
1 Gita Sloka  Every Day - Chapter 15 - Purushottama Yoga - Sloka 14


Aham vaishvanarah bhutva praninam deham ashritah I
Prana apana samayuktah pachami annam chatur vidham II sloka 14
अहं वैश्वनरः भूत्वा प्राणिनां देहं  आश्रितः I 
प्राण अपाण समायुक्ताः पचमि अन्नम् चतुर विधम् II  श्लोक 14

Abiding in the body of living beings Vaisvanara, associated with Prana and Apana, I digest the four kinds of food.   

That energy is known as Vaisvanara which remains in the bodies of beings as warmth and aids the digestion of food. This energy is also called as jataragni, the gastric fire. It is tended by the breathing that is going on incessantly ( the ingoing breath called as Prana and the outgoing breath called as Apana). 

The vital air in the body has five kinds of activities in the body and is accordingly called by five different names:
1.   Prana  maintains the life in the body
2.   Vyana  maintains circulation of air in the body
3.   Apana  is the unwanted gas, which is expelled from the body, through         the anus 
4.   Samana  helps digestion of the food eaten
5.   Udana  helps in proper respiration


Food is partaken of in four different ways - masticating, sucking, licking and swallowing - based on the nature and form of food. Excluding the akasa, the other four elements earth, water, fire and air constitute the food in four different ways

There are other benign ways in which the Lord is present in beings.These are recounted in the next sloka