Wednesday, February 29, 2012

Bhagavad Gita Chapter 5 - Sanyasa Yoga - Sloka 14


The entire content of this mail is from Swami Chidbhavananda's translation of The Bhagavad Gita, published by Ramakrishna Mission.

Karma pertains to Prakriti & not Purusha 14-17
1 Gita Sloka every day - Chapter 5 -Sanyasa Yoga - Sloka 14
 Meditation on the Lord
Na kartritvam na karmani lokasya srujati prabhuh I
Na karma phalam samyogam svabhavah u pravartate II sloka 14
न कर्तृत्वं न कर्माणि लोकस्य सृजति प्रभुः ।
न कर्म फलं संयोगं स्वभावः तु प्रवर्तते ।। श्लोक १४ 

The Lord does not create agency or actions for the world; He does not create union with the fruits of action. Nature does all this.

 Due to ignorance the individual self identifies himself with nature or prakriti  and assumes ownership over karma and its consequences. Actually all work belongs to nature and not to atman. This is further explained further

Tuesday, February 21, 2012

Bhagavad Gita Chapter 5 - Sanyasa Yoga - Sloka 13

The entire content of this mail is from Swami Chidbhavananda's translation of The Bhagavad Gita, published by Ramakrishna Mission.

Karma Yoga is Karma Sanyasa - 1-13
1 Gita Sloka every day - Chapter 5 -Sanyasa Yoga - Sloka 13
Narada roaming the universe
Sarva karmani manasa samniasya aste sukham vashi I
nava dvare pure dehi na eva kurvan na karyan II sloka 13
सर्व कर्माणि मनसा संनिअस्य आस्ते सुखं वशी ।
नव द्वारे पुरे देहि न एव कुर्वन् न कारयन ।। श्लोक १३ 

Having mentally renounced all actions, the self disciplined in dweller rests happily in the city of nine gates, neither acting nor causing to act.

Karma varies in pattern according to the temperamental difference. There are also forms of karma distinct in themselves. The indispensable one among them is the obligatory work, nitya karma,  such as eating sleeping, bathing and praying. By doing these acts no new merit is acquired but by failing in them there is a sure setback. Naimitya karma  are special activities that are performed on special occasions such as Ekadasi, eclipse etc. Kamya karma  or desire-impelled activities  are those performed for certain earthly ends. Again, there are the nishiddha karma, the prohibited acts that run counter to ethics. While the obligatory works alone go on automatically by sheer force of habit, the yogi does not engage himself in any other forms of karma. This is possible because he is completely rid of egoism and agency. 

The body with its openings is aptly compared to a city of 9 gates. Like a monarch, atman stays enthroned  in this citadel, the administration of which is carried on by the ministry of egosim, mind, intellect, life energy and the senses. The reign over the region of the body lasts until the momentum of the prarabdha karma  gets exhausted. Even while residing in the body, the consciousness of it and domination over its activities is entirely absent in the yogi. Self, revelling in its own glory, is the gain that the yogi has.

The yogi holds that all activities belong to Iswara and not to himself. Is Iswara then the real doer of all deeds? This is answered in the next sloka

Monday, February 20, 2012

Bhagavad Gita Chapter 5 - Sanyasa Yoga - Sloka 12


The entire content of this mail is from Swami Chidbhavananda's translation of The Bhagavad Gita, published by Ramakrishna Mission.

Karma Yoga is Karma Sanyasa - 1-13
1 Gita Sloka every day - Chapter 5 -Sanyasa Yoga - Sloka 12
Narada saving Hiranyashipu's pregnant wife
Yuktah karma phalam tyaktva shantim apnoti naishti kim I
Ayuktah kama karena phale sakto nibadhyate II sloka 12
युक्तः कर्म फलं त्यक्त्वा शान्तिं आप्नोति नैष्टि किं ।
अयुक्तः काम करेण फले सक्तो निबध्यते ।। श्लोक १२

Abandoning the fruit of action, the yogi attains peace born of steadfastness; impelled by desire, the non-yogi is bound, attached to fruit. 

Performance of karma is common to both, the yogi and the non-yogi. But the difference between the two is in the disposition. The feeling of agency to action is no more in the former. Whatever takes place through his instrumentality, is the Lord's work. His steadfastness consists of his mind being released from work and of its being immersed in the Lord. In this state of mind there is no anxiety; there is calmness instead; the mind gets itself steadily purified. it becomes fit for enlightenment. On the other side, the non-yogi gets entangled in work; anxiety is on the increase in him.

Sunday, February 19, 2012

Bhagavad Gita Chapter 5 - Sanyasa Yoga - Sloka 11


The entire content of this mail is from Swami Chidbhavananda's translation of The Bhagavad Gita, published by Ramakrishna Mission.

Karma Yoga is Karma Sanyasa - 1-13
1 Gita Sloka every day - Chapter 5 -Sanyasa Yoga - Sloka 11
Devotee Praying
Kayena manasa buddhya kevalaih indriyaih api I
Yoginah karma kurvanti sangam tyaktva atma shuddhaye II sloka ११
कायेन मनसा बुद्ध्य केवलैः इन्द्रियैः अपि ।
योगिनः कर्म कुर्वन्ति सङ्गं त्यक्त्वा आत्म शुद्धये ।। श्लोक ११

The yogi, abandoning attachment, performs work with the body, the mind, the intellect and the senses only, for self purification.

The motive power of desire creates the evil of attachment  and propels the mind and the senses on baneful missions. When the evil is eliminated the instruments become available for the service of the divine. The more they are engaged on holy purposes the better they get sanctified. Self purification is effected this way. Karma is verily the means to this great end. 

Saturday, February 18, 2012

Bhagavad Gita Chapter 5 - Sanyasa Yoga - Sloka 10


The entire content of this mail is from Swami Chidbhavananda's translation of The Bhagavad Gita, published by Ramakrishna Mission.

Karma Yoga is Karma Sanyasa - 1-13
1 Gita Sloka every day - Chapter 5 -Sanyasa Yoga - Sloka 10
 Banyan Tree of Creation
Brahmani adhaya karmani sangam tyaktva karoti yah I
Lipyate na sa papena padma patram iva ambhasa II sloka 10 
ब्रह्मणि आधाय कर्माणि सङ्गं त्यक्त्वा करोति यः ।
लिप्यते न स पापेन पद्म पत्रं इव अम्भसा ।। श्लोक १०  

He who acts, abandoning attachment, dedicating his deeds to Brahman, is untainted by sin as a lotus leaf by water.

The life, growth and sustenance of the lotus are all dependent on water. It dries away when severed from it. While constantly in touch with it, the lotus leaf does not permit getting wet with water. Man is born with karma and sustained by it. While fully availing himself of it, the yogi does not get affected by it. 

How the yogi avails himself of karma is explained in the next sloka. 

Bhagavad Gita Chapter 5 - Sanyasa Yoga - Sloka 8 & 9


The entire content of this mail is from Swami Chidbhavananda's translation of The Bhagavad Gita, published by Ramakrishna Mission.

Karma Yoga is Karma Sanyasa - 1-13
1 Gita Sloka every day - Chapter 5 -Sanyasa Yoga - Sloka 8 & 9
Kurma Avatara
The signs of freedom from the bondage of karma are as follows:
Na eva kinchit karomi iti yujtah manyet tatvavit I
Pashyan shrunvan sprushan jighran ashnan gachchan svapn shvasan II sloka 8

Pralapan visrujan gruhnan udmishan nimishan api I
Indriyani indriya artheshu vartante iti dharayan II sloka 9

न एव किञ्चित् करोमि इति युज्तः मन्येत तत्त्ववित्   ।
पश्यन श्रुण्वन स्पृशन जिघ्रन अश्नन गच्छन स्वपन् श्वसन् ।। श्लोक ८

प्रलपन् विसृजन् गृह्णन् उदमिष्न  निमिषन् अपि । 
इन्द्रियाणि इन्द्रिय अर्थेषु वर्तन्ते इति धारयन् ।। श्लोक ९

The sage centred in the self should think, "I do nothing at all",  though seeing, hearing, touching, smelling, eating, going, sleeping, breathing speaking, emptying, holding, opening and closing the eyes, firm in the thought that the senses move among sense objects. 
 
All activities pertaining to the bodily existence take place in the non-self. The self is actionless.The knower of the self is therefore free from agency.The person seated in an automobile does not himself move. He identifies himself with the vehicle  and says "I am going". The person who blurts in his sleep is not in reality the agent of that act. A man absorbed in deep thought is not aware of the taste of that dish he partakes. In all these cases the activities are not actually of the persons concerned. Similar to these, the jnani established in the atman is not the doer of the activities going on in the body, senses mind, intellect and the life energy called prana.
He who comes to know that he is only an instrument in the hands of the Lord, has no egoistic feeling. He is aware that he is only a tool with which God has his work done. Such a man causes harm to nobody. The poison of egoism is no more in him. A steel knife becomes a gold knife with the touch of  the philosopher's stone. Though the form of the knife is there, it is not useful any more for cutting. Similarly the jnani retains a seeming individuality, but no ignorance-born activity occurs in and through him.
Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa

Tuesday, February 14, 2012

Bhagavad Gita Chapter 5 - Sanyasa Yoga - Sloka 7


The entire content of this mail is from Swami Chidbhavananda's translation of The Bhagavad Gita, published by Ramakrishna Mission.

Karma Yoga is Karma Sanyasa - 1-13
1 Gita Sloka every day - Chapter 5 -Sanyasa Yoga - Sloka 7

Yoga yuktah vishuddh atma  vijit atma jitendriyah I
Sarva bhut atma bhutatma kurvan api na lipyate II sloka 7
योग युक्तः विशुद्ध आत्मा विजित आत्मा जितेन्द्रियः ।
सर्व भूत आत्म भूतात्मा कुर्वन् अपि न लिप्यते ।। श्लोक ७ 


With the mind purified by karma yoga, and the self, disciplined, and the senses subdued, one who realises one's self as the self in all beings, though acting, is not affected.


There is a contrast between the earth bound man engaging himself in action and the soul liberating karma yogi doing so. Bondage increases in the former and diminishes in the latter. The action of the yogi not being motivated by any desire, his understanding gets progressively clarified. As his desires in all forms get liquidated his self control tends to perfection. The desirelessness in him gets transformed into clarity of understanding. This clarity itself ultimately becomes the intuition which cognises the one Cosmic Consciousness apparently appearing as the multitudinous forms of consciousness. Karma yoga itself is karma sanyasa because it brings in these successive stages of spiritual development.
An individual has the delusion "I am the doer" as long as the philosopher's stone has not converted the base metal of his mind into the noble one of the divine eye. When he is in ignorance he entertains the feelings of agency such as " I am the doer of this virtuous act" and " I am the doer of this vicious act". This attitude is the cause of the continuation of the wheel of birth and death. But when one realises God, one is freed from the feelings of agency and bondage. 
Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa

Monday, February 13, 2012

Bhagavad Gita Chapter 5 - Sanyasa Yoga - Sloka 6


The entire content of this mail is from Swami Chidbhavananda's translation of The Bhagavad Gita, published by Ramakrishna Mission.

Karma Yoga is Karma Sanyasa - 1-13
1 Gita Sloka every day - Chapter 5 -Sanyasa Yoga - Sloka 6
Perumal in Vaikuntam
Sanyasah tu mahabaho dukham aptum ayogatah I
Yoga yuktah munih nachirena adhigachati II sloka 6
सन्यासः तु महाबाहो दुखं आप्तुं अयोगतः ।
योग युक्तः मुनिः ब्रह्म् नचिरेण अधिगच्छति  ।। श्लोक ६

Sanyasa, O mighty armed, is hard to attain without karma yoga; the man of meditation, purified by karma yoga quickly goes to Brahman.

A tender and unripe fruit clings fast to the tree that bears  and nourishes it; but when fully ripe it severs connection from its sustainer. Similarly, the karma yogi  gets from prakriti the experience that matures into wisdom. He is a philosopher who translates principle into practice. Theorization and make believe have no place in his spiritual career. By experiment he knows that life in the super senses is superior to that in the senses. The mind of the unselfish man is more magnanimous  than that of the selfish one. Life blossoms better in him who lives for others than in him who lives exclusively for himself. Just as sound sleep is possible only for him who works hard, deep meditation comes to him who has negated his individuality  in the service of others. It is self -denial that brings in purification of the heart. The one pure in mind becomes one with Brahman who is all purity. Here karma yoga fruitions in karma sanyasa

How the purification of the personality of the yogi takes place is explained in the next sloka



Sunday, February 12, 2012

Bhagavad Gita Chapter 5 - Sanyasa Yoga - Sloka 5


The entire content of this mail is from Swami Chidbhavananda's translation of The Bhagavad Gita, published by Ramakrishna Mission.

Karma Yoga is Karma Sanyasa - 1-13
1 Gita Sloka every day - Chapter 5 -Sanyasa Yoga - Sloka 5


Yat sankhyaih prapyate sthanam tad yogair api gamyate I
Ekam sankhyam cha yogam cha yah pashyati sa pashyati II sloka 5
यत् संखैः प्राप्यते स्थानं तद योगैर अपि गम्यते ।
एकं संख्यां च योगं च यः यः पश्यति स पश्यति ।। श्लोक ५

The state reached by the jnanis is also reached by the karma yogis. He who sees jnana and karma yoga as one.

Knowledge and action are the obverse and reverse of the same spiritually evolving entity. The one is not to the exclusion of the other. He who knows truly acts rightly. He who does things perfectly knows them in their right perspective. Know and do, or do and know are interchangeable. The contact with one side of the coin necessarily leads to the contact with the other side. Jnana and karma are in this wise two readings of the same spiritual attainment of the sadhaka. The knower of Brahman becomes Brahman.  The knowing aspect here is samkhya and the becoming aspect, yoga.

Of the two which is more beneficial?  The answer  comes in the next sloka.






1 Gita Sloka every day - Chapter 5 -Sanyasa Yoga - Sloka 4


The entire content of this mail is from Swami Chidbhavananda's translation of The Bhagavad Gita, published by Ramakrishna Mission.

Karma Yoga is Karma Sanyasa - 1-13
1 Gita Sloka every day - Chapter 5 -Sanyasa Yoga - Sloka 4
Laksmi Narayana


Sankhya  yogau prithak balah pravadanti  na pandita I
Ekam api astitah samyak ubhayoh vindate phalam II sloka 4
संख्या योगौ पृथक् बलः प्रवदन्ति न पण्डित ।
एकं अपि अस्तितः सम्यक उव्हयोः विन्दते फलं ।। श्लोक ४ 

Children, not the wise, speak of knowledge and performance of action as different; he who is truly established in one obtains the fruit of both.

Karma sanyasa which culminates in jnana is described here as samkhya. Those who donot understand the purport of the scripture are designated as children. Theory and practice are interrelated and interdependent. Right understanding leads to right doing;  right doing brings in right knowing. 

Friday, February 10, 2012

Bhagavad Gita Chapter 5 - Sanyasa Yoga - Sloka 3

The entire content of this mail is from Swami Chidbhavananda's translation of The Bhagavad Gita, published by Ramakrishna Mission.

Karma Yoga is Karma Sanyasa - 1-13
1 Gita Sloka every day - Chapter 5 -Sanyasa Yoga - Sloka 3

Karma Sanyasa too has it s own reward. Blessings such as quietude and tranquility ensue from it. Action on the other hand necessarily means disturbance of equilibrium. Objections to this effect maybe raised; but they are met in the following sloka :

Jneyah sa nitya sanyasi yah na dveshti na kankshati I
Nirdvandvah hi mahabaho sukham bandhat pramuchyate II sloka ३
ज्ञेयः स नित्य सन्यासी यः न द्वेष्टि  न काङ्क्षति ।
निर्द्वन्द्वः हि महाबाहो सुखं बन्धात् प्रमुच्यते ।। श्लोक ३

He should be known a constant sanyasin, who neither hates nor desires; free from the pair of opposites, O mighty-armed, he is easily set free from bondage.

It is not sanyasa is a man renounces duty due to dislike; neither  is it sanyasa if he delights in escaping from duty. Selfishness masquerades here as self denial. Then there is the man who mistakes the inertia in himself for equilibrium. His delight in slothfulness is interpreted as delight in the self. It is not action but attitude that binds or liberates a man. The emptiness of the posed tranquility gets itself exposed in tribulation. But the karma yogi is proof against imaginary quietude. In the midst of intense activities he is free from the likes an dislikes. true tranquility is therefore tangible in him. While acting he is not the agent; while being in the world, he is not of the world. Therefore karma yogi alone is the true karma sanyasi



Thursday, February 9, 2012

Bhagavad Gita Chapter 5 - Sanyasa Yoga - Sloka 2


The entire content of this mail is from Swami Chidbhavananda's translation of The Bhagavad Gita, published by Ramakrishna Mission.

Karma Yoga is Karma Sanyasa - 1-13
1 Gita Sloka every day - Chapter 5 -Sanyasa Yoga - Sloka 2
 Suka Brahmam addressing Parikshit
Shri Bhagavan Uvacha
Sanyasah karmayogascha nishreyas karau ubhau I
Tayoh tu karma sanyasat karmayogah vishishyate II sloka 2
श्री भगवान उवाच
सन्यासः कर्मयोगः च निश्रेयस करौ उभौ ।
तयोः तो कर्म संयासात  कर्मयोगः विशिष्यते ।। श्लोक २

The Lord said
Renunciation and performance of action both lead to freedom;of the two, performance of action is superior to renunciation of action.

Mukti or the emancipation of the soul is contained in sreyas, and it is the acme of human life. It can be gained by wither emancipation of action or by its performance. The sacred Badrika ashram in the interior of the Himalayas maybe reached by plane or on foot. Of the two the latter is preferable because of the experience and fruitful contact with people that  it brings. Karma yoga is akin to walking to Badrikashrama, while karma sanyasa is like reaching the place by plane. Through karma yoga method, wide experience is gained, the divine possibilities in the human is being processed to perfection and benign communion with the Lord's creation is established. These great purposes of life are denied to karma sanyasa.
The inexperienced player at the game of dice wants somehow to score a victory and he is intent on it. But an adept in it takes to the display of his talents first and attends to the gin next. Sadhakas who want to escape from the turmoils of the world are second to those who serve the world but are not bound by it. 
Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa     





Bhagavad Gita Chapter 5 - Sanyasa Yoga - Sloka 1

The entire content of this mail is from Swami Chidbhavananda's translation of The Bhagavad Gita, published by Ramakrishna Mission.

Karma Yoga is Karma Sanyasa - 1-13
1 Gita Sloka every day - Chapter 5 -Sanyasa Yoga - Sloka 1
Vrindavan Iskcon Krishna
Arjuna Uvacha
Sanyasam karmanam krishna punah yogam cha shamsasi I
Yachchreyah etayoh ekam  tat me bruhi sunischitam  II sloka 1
संयासं कर्मणां कृष्ण पुनः योगं च शंससि ।
यच्छ्रेयः एतयोः एकं तत् मे ब्रूहि सुनिश्चितं ।। श्लोक १

Arjuna said
Renunciation of action, O Krishna, you commend, and again in performance. Of the two, which one is the better? Tell me that conclusively.
In verses 18-19,21, 24, 32, 33, 37 & 41 the Lord advocated the renunciation of action. But in the last verse the same chapter he commended the performance of action. Two conflicting courses cannot be adopted simultaneously. Hence Arjuna raises this doubt.



Tuesday, February 7, 2012

Bhagavad Gita Chapter 4 - JnanaKarmaSanyasa Yoga - Essence of Chapter 4

The contents of this mail below  has been completely taken from the ebook Swamy Desikan’s GeethaarTa Sangraham which has been Annotated as a Commentary in English By Oppiliappan kOil SrI Varadachari Sathakopan (www.sadagopan.org). This ebook is available at http://www.sundarasimham.org/ebooks/GitaSHM.pdf. I have also attached the book for ease of download.

Translation of  Alavandar's Gitarthasangraham,  by Diwan Bahadur  VK Ramanujachari, published by Andavan Ashram has also been provided below.



VEDANTA DESIKAR'S GITARTHASANGRAHAM (IN TAMIL)
 Markandeyar & Alayela Krishna
THE ESSENCE OF THE FOURTH CHAPTER--- PAASURAM 5

FIFTH Paasuram of Swamy Desikan's GeethArTa Sangraham deals with the FOURTH adhyAyam of SrImath Bhagavath Geetha. This chapter has 42 slOkams.

PiRavAmai tanthidat-thAnE piRakkum perumaihaLum
thuRavAk-kirisaikaL thoomathi tannAl tulanguhayum
iRavA uyir nannilai kaNDidum ulahin nilayum
maRai vAzhum Maayavan nEyanukku anRu aRivitthananE

MEANING OF THE FIRST LINE OF THE PAASURAM
The Lord, who is celebrated by the VedAs decided to give to the Jeevans freedom from futurebirths in the karma bhUmi and instructed them through His friend Arjuna about the secrets relating to His own avathArams (incarnations) amidst us. Those who understand the glories of His avathAra rahasyams will never ever be born as a result of securing Moksham (PiRavAmai tanthida thAnE piRakkum). Those who comprehend the secrets associated with His avathArams have no more births; those who comprehend the ways in which He performs KarmAs during those avathArams will be freed of their own karmAs. Swamy Desikan sums up this visEsha anugraham of the Lord in the First line of the Paasuram:

“PiRavAmai tanthida ThAnE piRakkum Perumai udayAn”

To bless us with apunarAgamanam (non return to the SamsAra MaNDalam), He Himself incarnates in this Karma BhUmi. Those who comprehend His avathAra rahasyams have thus no more births (ithi janma rahasyam yO vEtthi, na asya Punarbhava:); as a result, that jeevan gains Moksha Sukham in SrI Vaikuntam.

WHAT ARE THESE AVATHARA RAHASYAMS OF THE LORD?

There are SIX aspects to His avathAra rahasyam:

  1. Sathyathvam: His incarnation is TRUE and not some kind of unreal, “make believe”magic. 
  2. Ajahath-svabhAvam: Our Jn~Anam in the Karma BhUmi is shrunken. In contrast, the Lord's Jn~Anam during his avathAram here is fully blossomed as always and does not suffer any diminution. He does not lose in any one of his endeavors. He continues to be the Supreme Lord.
  3. Suddha Satthva Maya Sareeram during His incarnation: His body is not formed by the admixture of the three guNams (Satthvam, Rajas and Tamas) as in our case. His body is completely Satthva mayam (Suddha Sathvam).
  4. SvEcchA-mAthra nidhAnathA: His birth does not arise from the maturation of His KarmAs like us. His birth is a result of His own sankalpam (volition).
  5. Dharma-glAnou Samudhaya: His incarnation happens, when the dharmam declines and adharmam ascends. The timing of our birth in contrast is linked to the ripening of our karmAs.
  6. Saadhu SamrakshaNArTathA: His birth here has nothing to do with the enjoyment of the fruits of karmAs, which are a mixture of Sukham and Dukkham. It is for uplifting the Saadhu Janams; they cannot bear even a moment of separation from Him and He incarnates to protect them from their enemies. He shows them His form (Narasimhan), converses with them (KrishNa and Gopis), establishes Dharmam (Raama) and destroys the unrighteous (Varaha avathAram).

MEANING OF THE SECOND LINE OF THE PAASURAM:
ThuRavAk-kirisaikaL thU mathi tannAl tulanguhayum” is the second line. KirisaikaL refers to the divisions of Karma yOgam such as AarAdhanam for the Lord, Control of senses (indhriyams), prANAyAmam, Yaagam, DhAnam, hOmam, Tapas, Bathing in holy waters, Vedic study and understanding of the meanings of the Vedic passages. These are “thuRavAk-KirisaikaL”, the karmas that cannot be abandoned; they are prescribed for each varNam and aasramam. Any one who does not seek the phalan of these karmas and yet performs them with a detached mind is practicing the highest form of Karma yOgam. For such a one, who has cultivated the disassociation with karma phalan, the enjoyment of aathma svaroopam without prakruthi sambhandham becomes possible. The Karma yOgam practiced in this way contains inside itself, Jn~Ana yOgam. Since, this saadhakan considers the performance of all the KarmAs as Parabrahma Svaroopam, Karma yOgam becomes Jn~Ana Svaroopam (thUmathi tannAl tulanguhayum). The words “thU mathi tannAl” refers to the ideal Karma yOgam housing inside it the Jn~Anam about the pristine Aaathma Svaroopam. “Tulanguhayum” alludes to that ideally observed karma yOgam shining as Jn~Ana yOgam.

MEANING OF THE THIRD LINE OF THE PAASURAM
“IRavA uyir nannilai kaNDidum ulahin nilayum” is the third line. The aathma JnAnam arising from the shining of the Jn~Ana yOgam embedded in the Karma yOgam destroys the jeevan's puNyams as well as the Paapams and gets the jeevan safely across the terrors of the ocean of SamsAram. “iRavA uyir” is the eternal, imperishable AthmA. SaakshAthkAram (direct visualization) of that AathmA in its true state (nal nilai=nannilai) is a great accomplishment resulting from the proper practice of Karma yOgam that houses Jn~AnayOgam inside it.

MEANING OF THE FOURTH LINE OF THE PAASURAM
“MaRai vaazhum Maayavan nEyanukku anRu aRivitthananE” is the fourth line. Our Lord isMaayavan, who is celebrated by the VedAs (maRai Vaazhum Maayavan). As a mysterious Swamy, He takes on many incarnations. He taught / informed (aRvitthaan) His friend (nEyan) the mysteries (the six rahasyams) behind His many incarnations (avathArams)on the first day of BhAratha yuddham (anRu aRivitthAn).

SWAMY ALAVANTHAAR'S SUMMARY OF THE 4TH CHAPTER
Prasangat svasvabhoktih karmano karmatasya cha I
Bheda gyanasya mahatmayam chaturdhyaya uchyate II sloka 8
--Swamy AlavanthAr's 

(EXTENDED MEANING):
In this Fourth chapter, the secrets behind BhagavAn's incarnation (avathAra rahasyams) amidst us are covered. He states that He is Sarvaj~nan (Omniscient) and His divine suspicious body (dhivya MangaLa vigraham) is not made up of the five elements (Paancha bhoudhikam) and is aprAkrutham. He also explained that His incarnations are out of His own volition (icchA mAthram) and are made at the times when there is a decline in dharmam and His bhakthAs need protection (Saadhu samraksahNam, dharma sTApanam and Dhushta Nigraham). He instructs us on the importance of Karma yOgam and that Jn~Ana Yogam is incorporated inside Karma Yogam. The svaroopam (inherent nature) of Karma Yogam is elaborated upon in the Fourth Chapter.

ACHAARYA RAAMAANUJAA'S COMMENTARY
In the fourth chapter, the need for practicing (elaborated in the third chapter) is confirmed. The purpose of the anushtAnam of Karma yOgam is identified as “Jagath uddhAraNam” (the deliverance of all beings). As Karma yOgam includes within itself, the knowledge of the Self (aathman), it is considered that “such Karma yOgam includes Jn~An yOgam in its scope” (anthargatha Jn~AnatayA asya yEva Jn~AnayOgaakArathAm pradarsaya). In addition to that, the nature of Karma yOga with its bhEdhams(divisions) and the dominance of the Jn~Ana portion in the Karma yOgam is elaborated in the fourth chapter. The avathAra rahsyams of the Lord are also covered in this chapter. 

SPECIAL SLOKAMS OF THE FOURTH CHAPTER TO REFLECT UPON:


Chapter 4 - Slokam 8:

Paritranaya sadhunam vinashaya cha dushkritam I
Dharma samsthapanarthaya sambhavami yuge yuge II sloka 8
परित्राणाय साधूनां विनाशाय च दुष्कृतं ।
धर्म संस्थापनार्थाय संभवामि युगे युगे ।। श्लोक ८ 

“For the protection of the Saadhu Janams and the destruction of the evil doers (enemies of My BhagavathAs) and for establishment of righteousness in this world, I incarnate in every yugam.”

Chapter 4 - Slokam 9:

Janma karma cha me divyamevam yah vettti tattvatah I
Tyaktva deham punarjanma naiti mameti sah arjuna II sloka 9 
जन्म कर्म च मे दिव्यमेवं यः वेत्ति तत्त्वतः ।
त्यक्त्वा देहं पुनर्जन्म नैति ममेति सः अर्जुन ।। श्लोक ९ 
“He who comprehends the truths of My divine incarnation and actions during those

avathArams has no rebirth and comes directly to Me.”


Chapter 4 - Slokam 11:

Ye yatha mam prapadyante tan tatha eva bhajami aham I
Mama vartam anuvartante manushyah partha sarvashah II sloka 11
ये यथा मां प्रपद्यन्ते तान् तथा एव भजामि अहं ।
मम वर्तम अनुवर्तन्ते मनुष्याः पार्थ सर्वशः ।। श्लोक ११ 
“Whoever resorts to Me in any manner, in the same manner do I favor them; men experience Me alone in different ways”.


Chapter 4 - Slokam 22:

Yadrccha labha santushtah dvandva ati itah vimatsarah I
Samah siddhau asiddhau cha krutva api na nibadhyate II sloka 22
यद्र्च्छा लाभ संतुष्टः द्वन्द्व अति इतः विमत्सरः ।
समः सिद्धौ असिद्धौ च कृत्वा अपि न निबध्यते ।। श्लोक २२  

“Content with what chance may bring, rising above the pairs of opposites, free from ill will, even minded in success and failure, though he acts, he is not bound”.

Chapter 4 - Slokam 23:

Gata sangasya muktasya  gyan avasthit chetasah I
Yagyaya acharatah karma samagrama pravi liyate II sloka 23
गत सङ्गस्य मुक्तस्य ज्ञान अवस्थित चेतसः ।
यज्ञाय आचरतः कर्म समग्रम प्रवि लीयते ।। श्लोक २३ 

“Of one whose attachments are gone, who is free, whose mind is established in knowledge, who works only for sacrifices, his karma is entirely dissolved”.

Chapter 4 - Slokam 24:

Brahma arpanam brahma havih brahma agnau brahmana hutam I
Brahma eva tena gantavyam brahma karma samadhina II sloka 24
ब्रह्म अर्पणम् ब्रह्म हविः ब्रह्म अग्नौ ब्रह्मणा हुतं  ।
ब्रह्म एव तेन गन्तव्यं ब्रह्म कर्म समाधिना ।। श्लोक २४ 

“Brahman is the instrument to offer with; Brahman is the oblation; By Brahman is the
oblation offered into the fire of Brahman; Brahman alone is to be reached by Him, who meditates on Him in his karmAs”.

SWAMY DESIKAN'S COMMENTARIES IN TAATHPARYA CHANDRIKAA ARE
EXCEPTIONALLY BEAUTIFUL AND INSIGHTFUL. IN VIEW OF THE LENGTH OF
THIS ESSAY, ADIYEN WILL NOT COVER THEM HERE
.
Now, we will continue with the KrishNa-Arjuna SamvAdham (Conversation) Housed in the fourth Chapter as enjoyed by Vaikunta Vaasi ThirukkaLLam Swami.

Arjuna: Oh Lord! Please explain to me what You started on (viz), karma yOgam being in the form of Jn~Ana yOgam.
KrishNa: All chEthanAs whether interested in Moksham or not are very much interested in the phalans for their karmAs. They also seek quick returns and choose to worship Indhra and other gods for that purpose. They fail to perform AarAdhanam for Me, who am the indweller of these demi-gods. I am the enjoyer of the offerings (as Yaj~na BhOkthA) made to these demi-gods. These chEthanams fearing SamsAram and desiring MOksham fail to observe the Jn~AnAkAra Karam yOgam, (Jn~Ana yOgam in the form of karma yOgam), My AarAdhanam with Saathvika thyAgam.
ArjunA: Oh Lord! The chEthanams with their bundles of sins weighing them down seek alpa (insignificant) phalans and fail to observe the means for moKsham, the Karma yOgam. Please instruct me on the Jn~AnaakAra Karma yOgam that will destroy the obstacles to MOksham.
KrishNA: Oh Dear one! I am the Creator, Protector and Destroyer of all chEthanams & achEthanams from Brahma Devan to the lowly grass. Although I am the creator of all sentients and insentients, I am not subject to any changes (avikAran).
ArjunA: MadhusUdhana! Your statement is confusing. How can You say that You are both the creator (KarthA) and not the creator (akarthA)?
KrishNA: I recognize your confusion. I am indeed the Creator of the sentients and insentients world. I am not however associated with the differences (Vaishamyams, vERupAdugaL) between say DevAs and Humans or between the humans et al. The differences in births as dEvAs or humans are due to their own karma visEshams. Therefore, I am indeed responsible for the creation of all chEthanams and achEthanams but not for their karmic-related differences among themselves. Therefore, I am consistent in My earlier statement that I am karthA and akarthA. Any one, who understands this subtle point, is released from both the good and bad karmAs (PuNya-Paapams). That one gets rid of the obstacles for the beginning of the Karma yOgam and the ending of the hankering after the desire for fruits. He is not bound by the ancient PrAcheenam) bundle of PuNyams and Paapams.
ArjunA: MaadhavA! You have now instructed me on the secret to remove the obstacles for thebeginning of Karma yOga. Are there any who have followed this path?
KrishNA: Yes, There are many Mumukshus (those who desire Moksham) that have observed this type of Karma yOgam. They understood Me as the karthA as well as the akarthA.  VivasvAn and Manu are two of such Mumukshus. Even great scholars and sages have been confused about the karmAs to be observed and the Jn~Anam housed inside that KarmA. I am going to instruct you now on the ways to be released from the bonds of samsAram that you can follow.
ArjunA: Oh Lord! Why has the path & structure of the KarmAs been difficult to grasp by the Scholars & Sages?
KrishNA: One should get a clear understanding on the karmAs that will be indispensable for Moksham. They should also be clear about the many types of vikarmAs such as Nithyam, Naimitthikam, Kaamyam and the accumulation of riches. One should also understand the akarma Jn~Anam). In view of the difficulties in understanding the many aspects of karmas, it has been a difficult path for many.
ArjunA: My Lord! It is difficult to comprehend the tatthvam that Karma yOgam is Jn~AnAkAram. Please explain to me further.
KrishNA: One who does the nithya karmAs (those that can not be abandoned) with no interest in the fruits thereof, with a mind not distracted by other matters, developing detachment from prakruthi and its karyams (loka vasthus) and having the Self alone as prayOjanam will break the bonds of SamsAram. He does not perform Karma yOgam first and then practice Jn~Ana yOgam for the visualization of the Self next but instead observes karma yOgam itself for that result of AathmAvalOkanam. Since this type of karma yOga anushtAnam is linked with Aathma svaroopam (other than Prakruthi), Karma yOgam is of the form of Jn~Ana yOgam as well.
ArjunA: KaNNA! Please elaborate on this for me!
KrishNA: Dhananjaya! The different branches of Karma yOgam are SandhyA vandhanam, Yaagam, PrANAyAmam, attempt to control the senses, VedAdhyayanam, VedAntha vichAram, Kruchra, SaanthrAyaNa praayascchitthams.
Arjuna: KrishNA! As one who observes karma yOgam, should I abandon Nithya,Naimitthika karmAs?
KrishNA: For one who does not observe nithya-naimithika karmAs, the three purushArthams of Dharma, arTa and Kaamam won’t be realized in this world. If this were to be so, how can they even hope for the ultimate purushArTam of Moksham?
Arjuna: GopAlA! You have instructed that Karma yOgam is of the form of Jn~Anam
(Jn~AnAkAram). Among these, is the Karma bhAgam more important than Jn~Ana
bhAgam?
KrishNA: Among the two aakArams (manifestations) of Karma yOgam, Jn~Ana bhAgam is loftier than the Karma bhAgam, where dhravyam (dakshiNai) is involved.
ArjunA: Oh RukmaNi Vallabha! I have clearly understood Your upadEsams. DhanyOsmi.
KrishNA: ArjunA! It is not enough that you understood these subtle aspects now. There will come times before the anushtAnam bears fruit, when you will experience doubts. At those times, approach great souls, serve them well and ask them indirectly questions about what confuses you. They out of their compassion for you will give the most straightforward answers to help you make progress.
ArjunA: Oh brother of BalarAmA! What is the indication that one has reached that stage of Mastery over the anushtAnam of karma yOgam?
KrishNA: When the practitioner is not deluded, develops a sense of seeing the aathma svaroopam in all created beings and recognizes Me as their antharyAmi, then the mastery has been attained. There is nothing that is purer in this  world than aathma jn~Anam. Those who observe this Jn~AnAkAra karma yOgam as instructed by Me will attain siddhi. Cut asunder hence with the sword of Aathma Jn~Anam all your doubts about the anAdhi vasthu, AathmA and practice Karma Jn~Anam to gain freedom from SamsAric afflictions & Moksham.

Parama Saaram of the Fourth Chapter is PoorNam

Meaning from Alavandar's Gitarthasangraham, translated by Diwan Bahadur  VK Ramanujachari, published by Andavan Ashram
 In the 4th chapter, it is stated that karma has an aspect other than action, its varieties and the greatness of the jnana aspect. Incidentally the nature of Brahma in his avatara is described.


Explanation : The karma done as karma yoga has 2 aspects - an action aspect and a thought aspect. In the  latter aspect the thought of the atma as he is revolved in the mind as the action is done. 
The term akarma means what is other than karma or action.I.e. when the action is done, the doer should think of the atma as he is. By doing so, the action gets a thought aspect; and the thought of the atma, by entering into the karma yoga attains the action aspect. A person who does action in this manner is praised. 


Karma yoga is merely diverting of the senses to things that help the thought of the atma, instead of opposing it by dwelling on objectionable objects. While the senses are thus engaged, the mind meditates on the atma in his real nature. 


Karma yoga has 3 aspects - One is to ignore the fruits of action and starve the desire for it. The next is to think of every action as that of the atma and not the bodyand to weaken its identification with the latter. the third is to give up the idea of "Mine" in everything connected with the body.  The person makes his offering regarding everyone involved - the offering, the instrument or tool, the person making the offerring and the person receiving it - as part of brahman.


The different types of karma yoga were also discussed here - They are : 1) worship of images; 2) performance of karmas; 3) control of senses; 4) control of sense objects;5) control of the mind;6) making gifts offerings with means properly acquired; 7) fasting in various ways 8) pilgrimages to holy places; 9) recitation of the vedas; 10) study of its meanings; 11) regulation of breath in the form of puraka, rechaka and kumbhka. 


Sriman Narayana's avatara rahasya was also revealed  here 

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
For an introduction given earlier to the Gitarthasangrahas by Swamy Alavandar & Swamy Desikan 


For Essence of the first chapter go to  http://haricharanam.blogspot.com/2011/03/bhagavad-gita-chapter-1-arjuna-nishada_4368.html

Monday, February 6, 2012

Bhagavad Gita Chapter 4 - JnanaKarmaSanyasa Yoga - Sloka 42


The entire content of this mail is from Swami Chidbhavananda's translation of The Bhagavad Gita, published by Ramakrishna Mission.

Doubt is Derogatory - 40-42
1 Gita Sloka every day - Chapter 4 -JnanaKarmaSanyasa Yoga - Sloka 42
Lakshmi Hayagrivar - Srirangam
Tasmat agyana sambhutam hrutstam gyana asina atmanah I
Chittva enam samshayam yogam atishta udtishta bharata II slika 42
तस्मात अज्ञान संभूतं ह्रुत्स्तं ज्ञान असिना आत्मनः ।
छित्त्वा एनं संशयं योगं आतिष्ट उद्तिष्ट भारत ।। श्लोक ४२ 

Therefore, severing with the sword of knowledge this ignorance-born doubt about the self, dwelling in your heart, be established in yoga. Stand up, O Bharata. 

Doubt is the originator of all evils. It takes its stand on ignorance. In the night of ignorance, things cannot be viewed in their true perspective. Therefore understanding remains in a confused state. ignorance and inertia are inter-related. The urge to be up and doing is absent in this drowsy state. But at day break is shaken off, things are seen in their true shape and the man goes about his work with all zeal. The dawn of knowledge is similar to this. It drives away the soul-killing doubt. Knowing and doing go hand in hand; and the man is at his best.

Iti shrimad bhagavad gitasu upanishadtsu brahmavidyayam yogashastre srikrishna arjuna samvade gyanakarma sanyasayogo nama chaturthodhyayah II
इति श्रीमद भगवद्गीतासु उपनिशद्त्सु ब्रह्मविद्यायां योगशास्त्रे  श्रीकृष्ण अर्जुन संवादे ज्ञान कर्म संयसयोगो नाम चतुर्थोध्यायः ।।